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The New South. Chapter 16. Bourbon Triumvirate. Redemption Era : period after Reconstruction and before the “New South” Redeem the state from the hardships of Reconstruction (i.e.…The Republican Party) The Bourbon Triumvirate : Joseph Brown, Alfred Colquitt, and John Gordon

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the new south

The New South

Chapter 16

bourbon triumvirate
Bourbon Triumvirate

Redemption Era : period after Reconstruction and before the “New South”

      • Redeem the state from the hardships of Reconstruction (i.e.…The Republican Party)
  • The Bourbon Triumvirate: Joseph Brown, Alfred Colquitt, and John Gordon
      • Democrats who wanted stronger economic ties with northern industry but maintain “old South traditions” (White Supremacy)
joseph brown
Joseph Brown
  • Yale Law School
  • Opened law office in Canton, GA
  • State senator
  • Judge
  • N. Georgia farmer
  • 1857: elected governor
  • State’s rights activist
  • Possible connections to KKK

Annals: records

Governor Joseph Brown

alfred colquitt
Alfred Colquitt
  • Princeton Law School
  • Fought in Mexican War
  • State senator
  • Maj. Gen. in Confederate Army
  • 1876: elected Governor
  • State debt reduced
  • New state constitution (1877)

Political Ally: one who shares a common cause

Alfred Colquitt

john b gordon
John B. Gordon
  • Lt. Gen. in Confederate Army
  • Newspaper man
  • Manager of coal mine
  • Rumored Head of Georgia’s KKK during Reconstruction
  • 1886: elected Governor
  • Brought new industry to Georgia.

Lt. Gen. John B. Gordon

the bourbon triumvirate
Successes

State taxes lowered

State war debts reduced

Business and industry expanded

Failures

Did not improve lives of poor

Education suffered

Did not reform prisons

Poor working conditions in factories

The Bourbon Triumvirate
convict lease system
Convict Lease System
  • Prisoners were leased (rented) to people who provided them with housing and food in exchange for labor (Slavery?)
    • Repairing/building Railroads
    • Farming
    • Mining
  • Rules ignored, such as…health care, work on Sundays, adequate clothing and housing.
  • Paid workers were not given work because of cheap Convict Lease System…Bourbon Triumvirate took advantage of this!

Chain gang in western North Carolina

rebecca and william felton
Rebecca and William Felton
  • Roots of Populist Movement
  • Led a group of independent Democrats against the Triumvirate
  • From Cartersville

William Felton: U.S. Congressman; served in GA General Assembly

    • Worked to improve education, prison reform, and paved the way for controls and limits on alcohol.

Rebecca Latimer Felton

Picture of 1930 Prohibition

rebecca felton
Rebecca Felton
  • A leader towards suffrage-votes, particularly for women.
  • Pushed for temperance-anti-alcohol
  • Popular writer for the “Atlanta Journal”
      • Used paper as a forum (Way to communicate ideas…TV, paper, radio, speech…)
  • Began Georgia Training School for Girls in Atlanta
      • With Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage
  • First female U.S. Senator in nation’s history
      • Replaced another Senator due to death (24 hours)
the new south1
“The New South”
  • New South: A phrase used to describe southern progress in the late 1800s…Industry!
    • Henry W. Grady: first to use the phrase…editor for the Atlanta Daily Journal

Henry W. Grady

Example of Georgia Industry

the chicago fire
The Chicago Fire

Chicago before the fire

Chicago during the fire

  • 1871-Started in the barn of Daniel Sullivan
    • 17,500 buildings destroyed
    • 250 people killed
    • $200 Million in damage
      • Mrs. O’Leary’s Cow!!!
industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
  • New inventions and leaps forward in technology
  • The rise of the factory and industry
    • Assembly Line
    • Poor, difficult and dangerous working conditions (Laissez-faire)
  • Rise of the City (Urban)
  • Labor Organizations: Unions
    • Worked for the improvement of safety and working conditions in the work place.
  • Religious and Charitable (Philanthropic) organizations came to the aid of workers and child laborers.
immigration
Immigration

Ellis Island

  • Immigration: people moving into the U.S. from other countries
  • Emigration: people moving out of the U.S. to other countries (move away)

1840-1880: Western Europe (Ireland, France,…)

1900-1910: Southern and Eastern Europe (Italy, Germany,…)

  • Congress passed acts to restrict immigration.
    • They feared the newcomers would take jobs and gain political offices
    • Led by the people who had been here since before the Revolution
political scandals
Political Scandals

Schuyler Colfax

New York Elections in 1870s

Rutherford B. Hayes

2000 Electoral Map

political scandals ii
Political Scandals II
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal: a political and financial scandal in President Grant’s administration that centered around the Trans-Continental Railroad.
  • New York Democratic Party Machine: robbed the city of millions of dollars and led through bribery and threats.
  • 1876 Election: Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep.) vs. Samuel Tilden (Dem.)
    • Tilden won the popular vote.
    • 4 Disputed states (Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Oregon)
    • Special committee appointed to decide the election.
      • 5 Senators, 5 House of Reps., and 5 Supreme Court Justices (8 Republicans and 7 Democrats)
      • Voted Party Lines
    • Hayes ended Carpetbag rule and removed all troops from the south…to fulfill promises made to Committee.
    • Similar to the 2000 Bush-Gore Election
james garfield assassination
James Garfield Assassination

1881 Republican President

  • Involved in Credit Mobilier Scandal
  • Killed by an angry Republican job seeker who was overlooked for a government position.

Patronage: appointing people to gov’t jobs in return for political support.

  • Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883: established civil service exams for job vacancies in government.
    • Most qualified would get job

James Garfield

Railroad depot where Garfield was shot

splendid little war
“Splendid Little War”
  • February 15, 1898:
    • The U.S. battleship “Maine” blew up in Havana (Cuba) Harbor…260 Americans died
    • Americans blamed the Spanish
    • Spanish-American War

“Remember The Maine!”

    • Rallying cry for Americans seeking war with Spain.

Battleship Maine

spanish american war
Spanish-American War
  • Commodore George Dewey:
    • Defeated Spanish fleet stationed in Manila, Philippine Islands
  • Theodore Roosevelt:
    • Led the attack up San Juan Hill, Cuba…future President
  • Treaty signed in Paris ending war in 1898.
    • U.S. gained Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam for $20 million.

George Dewey

Theodore Roosevelt

the populist movement
The Populist Movement

Rose from farmers and workers who were becoming tired, poor, and discouraged!

  • The Grange: name used for the “Patrons of Husbandry”,a group organized to allow social gatherings where farmers could talk about common problems.
    • Early 1870s prices began to drop
    • Banks not lending as much money to farmers
georgia s granges
Georgia’s Granges
  • 1872: Georgia’s Granges become political (Along with others in the South and Midwest).
    • Applied political pressure (lobbying) to state legislature and forced the formation of a State Department of Agriculture (1st in the nation)

The National Grange

the farmers alliance
The Farmers’ Alliance
  • Farmers’ Alliance: began as social organizations in the Northwest and the South.
    • Formed co-ops: purchased goods and equipment directly from producers and sold to farmers at wholesale prices -cost of production (No taxes).
    • Called for more U.S. production of paper money
    • Higher credit limits to farmers
the populist party
The Populist Party

The Farmers’ Alliance joined with labor organizations (unions) to form this new political party.

Platform:

  • 8hour workday
  • Gov’t ownership of railroad, telephone, and telegraph
  • Graduated federal income tax
  • Direct election of U.S. Senators
  • Restriction of immigration
  • Use of Australian Ballot:
    • Ballot printed by gov’t, distributed at voting places, and collected in secret sealed boxes.

1892 Election: Democrat Grover Cleveland won…Populist candidate: James B. Weaver

James B. Weaver

White and black farmers

tom watson
Tom Watson
  • Georgia’s best known Populist.
  • 1882: elected to Georgia General Assembly
  • 1890: elected to Congress with backing of Farmers’ Alliance
    • Introduced the Rural Free Delivery Bill (RFD): required the postmaster general to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge
      • Warren County: 1st in GA
  • 1896: ran as vice-president under William Jennings Bryant (Lost)

Tom Watson, Populist

credits
Credits
  • Page 2: http://www.historypictures.com/home_ahppx_e.htm
  • Page 3: http://ngeorgia.com/people/brown.html
  • Page 4: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000647
  • Page 5: http://ngeorgia.com/people/gordon.html
  • Page 7: http://www.millionsforreparations.com/prisons.html
  • Page 8: http://www.beerbooks.com/cgi/ps4.cgi?action=enter&thispage=psdbi/map/prohibitionphotos.html&order_id=!ORDERID!
  • Page 8: http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-904
  • Page 10: http://www.wordtravels.com/Travelguide/Provinces/Georgia/Photos
  • Page 10: http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2451
  • Page 11: http://www.chicagohs.org/fire/prefire/pic0173.html
  • Page 11: http://www.chicagohs.org/fire/conflag/pic0172.html
  • Page 13: http://www.ellisisland.com/ellis_home.html
  • Page 14: http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/rh19.html
  • Page 14: http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/issueoftheweek/20030901/200/507
  • Page 14: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000626
  • Page 14: http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/election/map.htm
  • Page 16: http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/jg20.html
  • Page 16: http://www.crimelibrary.com/terrorists_spies/assassins/charles_guiteau/index.html
  • Page 17: http://www.spanamwar.com/maine.htm
  • Page 18: http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/dewey.html
  • Page 18: http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/tr26.html
credits ii
Credits II
  • Page 19: http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/masonicmuseum/fraternalism/grange.htm
  • Page 20: http://www.nationalgrange.org/about/history.html
  • Page 22: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_org_populist.html
  • Page 22: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_B._Weaver
  • Page 23: http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/watson.html
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