Where 2.0 Australia?How can online spatial and interactive technologies connect people and places for environmental sustainability? Presentation to the Geographer and Environmental Studies Annual Conference12-13 July, 2012, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Alister Clark PhD Candidate School of Geography and Environmental Studies University of Tasmania Supervisors: Dr Lorne Kriwoken, Dr Jon Osborn, Dr Kate Booth and Dr Richard Mount
The “Open” Geospatial Web 2.0 Photos Text Embed Link Video PLACES Share Sites News PEOPLE
Origins and history 1993 - first web based GIS - OGC interoperability standards - barriers: bandwidth, complex software and poor user interfaces. 2000 - Web 2.0 emerges - removal of selective availability of GPS signal - increased computing power vs. cost, speed, better software and interfaces - crowdsourcing, P2P production, user generated content 2005 - Geospatial Web 2.0 emerges - Google Earth and maps launched - GPS enabled smart phones develop - Mapping API’s – “mapping mashups” - Neography, Volunteered Geographic Information
What does this mean? The world on our desktops c. 2005 The world in our hands c. 2010? Printing Press c.1460--70
Interact Contribute Share Reuse Adapt Downloaded 19/6/2012 from http://www.ala.org.au/
Rich, contextual, free, open information What is Where, When, Who says so?
Contribute to planning for Victoria’s Parks (http://www.weplan.parks.vic.gov.au/home) Help monitor fish movements http://www.redmap.org.au/.
www.birdata.com.au • www.myswan.org.au • www.firenorth.org.au • www.climatewatch.org.au • www.feralscan.org.au
Interested in food sustainability? http://www.localharvest.org.au/ Concerned about Coal Seam Gas Mining? http://csg.getup.org.au/
Current Australian GW2 initiatives: • Are focussed on a particular subject matter • Decide manner of interaction: subject matter, form of the subject matter • Open in some ways to a greater or lesser extent, but limited ability to interact outside given structure, sometimes to reuse or adapt • What if…?
Methodology & methods Participatory Action Research For or with the community? Observe or participate? • Affecting change: • Participants • Researcher Action Research Environmental Management Systems Adaptive Resource Management
Methodology & methods Complex Adaptive Systems Sub optimal Bottom up, organic evolution Self organisation Loose connections Emergent complexity The Adaptive Cycle (Gunderson and Holling 2002) Environmental Management Systems Adaptive Resource Management
Online wiki and map: Communication Participation Collaboration https://stateofourenvironment.wikispaces.com/ http://goo.gl/maps/o87U Researcher position - validity? Reflexivity Power relationships Insider Outsider
What do participants do (online)? What do participants think ? conversations, emails, meetings
Results so far- my practice • the platforms I have used are easy to use to communicate many subjects in different ways. • limitations for larger amounts of information and more complex representations. • simple representations can influence environmental management outcomes in novel ways. • changed awareness, attitude, practice
Results 2 - Participants • Little online – most offline • Variable but increasing understanding of GW2 Barriers to participation: • Approach is too broad, vague • Lack of ability, time or desire • Concerns over security and privacy • Loss of intellectual property Unexpected participation…
Discussion / Analysis • Open GW2 can empower individuals, but with limitations • Wide participation may require focussed efforts • GW2 is a new socio-technological phenomena • My community is “cautiously interested” • Interactions outside of the internet are important • Relationships appear crucial – motivation?
Conclusion • Individuals can use the GW2 now to influence environmental management outcomes • Broader potential for environmental management is influenced by a mix of socio-technological factors • Australian commentary and understanding is limited and in its infancy • Geographers and the academy have important roles to play in fostering commentary and understanding regarding Where 2.0 Australia?