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Forest - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Forest. It is a natural ecosystem having multispecies and multiage trees as dominant community. Forest covers about 1/3rd of the earth’s land surface of which about 50% is occupied by tropical forest.

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  • It is a natural ecosystem having multispecies and multiage trees as dominant community.

  • Forest covers about 1/3rd of the earth’s land surface of which about 50% is occupied by tropical forest.

  • Increased urbanization, industrialization and mining has entailed indiscriminate felling of trees and denudation of forests.


Wildlife management

The balance of nature, wildlife plays an integral part. Wildlife includes 350 spp of mammals, 1200 spp of birds and more than 20,000 spp insect and countless number of plant species.

  • Today wildlife species are gradually disappearing and number is becoming reduced.

  • Basic reasons for the extinction of wildlife:

    i) Destruction of their natural habitat due to expanding agriculture, urbanization and industrialization.

    ii) Overgrazing by domestic animals that convert the area into deserts.

    iii) Hunting/poaching on a large scale for meat, fur, ivory etc. - commercial exploitation.

    iv) Export of some species.

    v) An unbalanced sex ratio

    vi) Some species are narrowly restricted to an area.

    Vii) Natural processes are also cause a decline in the population.


  • Project tiger:initiated on 1st April 1973 based on recommendation of IBWL - to protect royal Bengal tigers - Covers 0.49% of total geographical area of the country

  • Gir lion projectin 1972 - Gir forest - Gujarat - only surviving habitat of the Asian Lion - extinction - clearing of forest for agriculture excessive cattle grazing

  • Crocodile breeding project- 16 centers have been developed in the country.

  • Rhinoz conservation – 1987

  • Snow - leo pard projects: in Himalayas

Energy transfer
Energy transfer

  • The behaviour of energy is governed by law of thermodynamics.

  • The first law states that energy can be transformed from one form to another but is never created or destroyed.

  • The second law states that no process involving an energy transformation will occur unless there is a degradation of energy fromaconcentrated form into a disbursed form.


  • The energy used for all life process is derived from solar radiation.

  • Energy reaching the earth’s surface largely of visible light and infra red components.

  • About 34% of the sun light reaching the earth’s atmosphere is reflected back and 10% is held by ozone layer, water vapour and other atmospheric gases.

  • Only 1 to 2% of the energy reaching the earth surface is used by plants for photosynthesis and the rest is absorbed as heat by vegetation and water.


Energy sources solar radiation.

Conventional exhaustible energy sources:

a) Fire wood

b) Fossil fuel


Non-conventional and in-exhaustible energy sources: solar radiation.

a) Solar energy:

b) Wind Power:

c) Hydro power:

d) Atomic power:

e) Bio-energy:


Food Resources solar radiation.

World Food Problems

  • The world population increases and cultivable land area decreases.

  • Due to the inadequate rainfall, the productivity of food is reduced by every year.

  • Environmental degradation like soil erosion, water logging, water pollution, salinity, affects agricultural lands.

  • Urbanization is another problem for the reduction of agricultural lands.

    Indian Scenario

  • India is the 3rd largest producer of crops, but 300 million Indians are still undernourished

  • Land wise, India is only half as much of USA, but population wise three times higher.

  • Food problem is directly related to population growth.


Under nutrition solar radiation.

  • The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of United Nations estimated that on an average, minimum calorie intake on a global scale is 2,500 calories per day.

  • Peoples receiving less than 90% of these minimum dietary calories are called under nourished.

  • If it is less than 80% that are said to be seriously undernourished.

  • People who cannot buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs (carbohydrates) suffer from under nutrition.


  • They are suffering from metal retardation and infectious diseases such AS measles and diarrhea.


b) Malnutrition solar radiation.

Besides, the minimum calorie intake, we also need proteins, minerals etc.,

Deficiency or lack of nutrition often leads to malnutrition.

  • Chronically under nourished and malnourished people are diseases prone and are too weak to work or think clearly.

  • The world Food summit,1996 has set the target to reduce the number of under nourished to just half by 2015 which still means 410 million undernourished people on the earth.


Indian Scenario solar radiation.

Although India is the third largest producer of stable crops, an estimated 300 million Indians are still undernourished. Indians has only half as much land as USA, but it has nearly three times population to feed. Our food problems are directly related to population.

The world Food summit, 1996 has set the target to reduce number of under nourished to just half by 2015, which still means 410 million undernourished people on the earth.


Thank You solar radiation.