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Electromagnetic Spectrum. LIGHT Principles of Physics. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Waves created by fluctuating electric and magnetic fields Transverse waves Can travel in a vacuum – do not need a medium Travel at the speed of light in a vacuum (c = 300,000,000 m/s)

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electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum

LIGHT

Principles of Physics

electromagnetic spectrum1
Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Waves created by fluctuating electric and magnetic fields
    • Transverse waves
    • Can travel in a vacuum – do not need a medium
    • Travel at the speed of light in a vacuum

(c = 300,000,000 m/s)

  • Organized by frequency and wavelength
slide4
3.84x1014 Hz

4.82x1014 Hz

5.03x1014 Hz

5.20x1014 Hz

6.10x1014 Hz

6.59x1014 Hz

7.69x1014 Hz

Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet

radio micro and infrared waves
Radio, Micro, and Infrared Waves
  • Longest wavelength and lowest frequency
  • RADIO WAVES ARE NOT SOUND WAVES
  • Provide the signal for communications devices such as: radios, television, cell phones
  • Micro waves are used to cook food
  • Infrared waves are used for TV remote controls, night vision
ultraviolet x and gamma waves
Ultraviolet, X and Gamma Waves
  • Shortest wavelength, highest frequency
  • Cause damage to human cells because wavelength is close to atomic size
  • Ultraviolet – sun bathing
  • X – used to detect bone damage, baggage screening at airports
  • Gamma – radioactive decay
visible light
Visible Light
  • Waves that allow us to see color
  • Red – longest wavelength, lowest frequency

(3.84 x 1014 Hz = 384,000,000,000,000 Hz)

  • Violet – smallest wavelength, highest frequency (7.69 x 1014 Hz = 769,000,000,000,000 Hz)
slide9
Light Sources
  • Emit light waves
  • Produce light
  • Sun, light bulbs, flames

Illuminated Objects

  • Most objects
  • Actually are reflecting light
  • People, plants, rocks, etc.

Moon – source or illuminated?

characteristics of light waves
Characteristics of Light Waves
  • Intensity (brightness) = amplitude

Large amplitude, a lot of energy (very hot)

Small amplitude, less energy (warm)

characteristics of light waves1
Characteristics of Light Waves
  • Color = frequency
    • Order of colors = spectrum
    • Primary colors of light – red, green and blue
      • Red light +green light +blue light = white light
      • Different than pigment colors (ink, paint, etc)
        • These reflect light, they are not sources

Mixing colors Applet

slide12
Light can be reflected or transmitted:

Materials

  • Transparent – transmit clearly (clear glass, still water)
  • Translucent – transmit blurry (frosted glass)
  • Opaque – no transmission (light may be reflected or absorbed)
slide13
Speed of light in a vacuum = c

= 299,792,458 m/s

= 2.99792458 x 108 m/s

≈ 3.00 x 108 m/s

Speed of light in any other material depends on optical density (ability of a material to transmit light)

  • Greater optical density, more light slows down

Air c / 1.003 ≈ 3.00 x 108 m/s

Water c/1.33

Diamond c/2.42

scientific notation
Scientific Notation

1. Ex: 300,000,000 → 3.0

0.000345 → 3.45

  • Put a decimal after the first non-zero number and drop any zeroes
  • Determine the power of ten by counting the places before of after the decimal
  • Show the places before or after the decimal using an exponent. Use a negative on your exponent if the decimal is before the number

2. Ex: 300,000,000 → 3.0 8 places after

0.000345 → 3.45

4 places before

  • Ex: 300,000,000 →
  • 3.0 x108

0.000345 →

3.45 x 10-4

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