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地铁 Subway. 制作者:城轨 1203 班 卿甫亮. 地 铁 定 义.

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subway

地铁 Subway

制作者:城轨1203班 卿甫亮

slide2
地 铁 定 义
  • 地下铁道,英文为Metro 或者Subway,简称地铁,亦简称为地下铁,狭义上专指在地下运行为主的城市铁路系统或捷运系统;但广义上,由于许多此类的系统为了配合修筑的环境,可能也会有地面化的路段存在,因此通常涵盖了都会地区各种地下与地面上的高密度交通运输系统。是城市对到交通中运力最大的一种运输方式。它与轻轨相似。地铁和轻轨的区别,不单纯是走地下和走地上的区别的。指涵盖了都会地区各种地下与地上的路权专有、高密度、高运量的城市轨道交通系统(Metro),台湾则称为“捷运”(Rapid transit)。除了上述的地下铁以外,也包括高架铁路(Elevated railway)或路面上铺设的铁路。因此,地铁是路权专有的,无平交,这也是地铁区别于轻轨交通系统的根本性的标志。
slide3

根据各城市类似系统的发展起源与使用习惯之不同,常称为:Metro(法国巴黎、中国大陆地区)、MRT(新加坡、台北、高雄等)、MTR(特指香港)、Overground(特指地上轨道)、Railway(特指地上在英文环境中上海轨道交通4号轨道)、Subway(美国及周边地区、北京)、Tube(特指伦敦)或Underground(特指伦敦)。根据各城市类似系统的发展起源与使用习惯之不同,常称为:Metro(法国巴黎、中国大陆地区)、MRT(新加坡、台北、高雄等)、MTR(特指香港)、Overground(特指地上轨道)、Railway(特指地上在英文环境中上海轨道交通4号轨道)、Subway(美国及周边地区、北京)、Tube(特指伦敦)或Underground(特指伦敦)。

slide4

Is the world's first underground railway system in 1863, Britain opened " Metropolitan Railway ", was built in order to solve the traffic congestion in London at that time. When power has not been popular, so even the underground railroad can only use steam locomotive. Due to the locomotive releasing gas harmful to human body, so the time of the tunnel and ground every distance will get through the ventilation slots. In 1870, London opened its first passenger drill more subway, across the river Thames near London bridge tower, but is not successful, the railway was shut down after several months. The oldest drill type underground railway, opened in 1890, is located in London, connected to the central and southern regions. Railway builder initially plan to use the similar cable car driving method, but in the end with the electric locomotive, the article makes its first electric underground. The opening of the subway in London the city early in 1906 for the entire quantity of electrification.

  • In 1896, the austro-hungarian empire the city of Budapest, opened the continent's first subway, a total of 5 kilometers, 11, still in use.
地铁历史
slide5
地铁历史
  • Paris, France Paris metro opened in 1900, the original French name "Chemin DE FerMetropolitain" literal translation means "Metropolitan rail" (French) from the "Metropolitan Railway" direct translation of the past, later reduced to "metro", so many urban rail systems are called metro. Russia's subway also logical, just switch the Cyrillic alphabet, called М е т р о.
  • China's first subway line was established in July 1, 1965, oct 01, 1969 built open to traffic, make Beijing become the first city to have subway in China.
  • A city's subway reflects the culture of the city. Subway is like transportation inside the most lovely elf, shuttling from every corner of every city, it is bearing the weight of people laugh, people cry; It records the life of fast and slow; It also included the dribs and drabs of the economic development; It set up the city's underground meridians, led to huge underground mall.
slide6
建筑,供电,营运方法
  • Generally USES the following methods to build the subway station
  • (1) the vertical cut along the way
  • (2) the foundation pit digging along the way
  • (3) the foundation pit digging uni-axial cover
  • Power supply mode
  • Power supply mode in general, for tunnel construction cost reduction, most will choose to use the third rail subway power supply way to shrink tunnel cross section, but not absolute. The subway power supply main is as follows:
  • Operation of the way
  • Urban rail transit system's operating mode can be roughly divided into two kinds. It is by a government or organization to run, is known as the public sector. Another is operated by private enterprises, is a privately owned. At the same time there is a third way of operating, operators are private enterprises, but backers are public sector organizations, it is more common in Europe.
slide7
地 铁 优 点

Save the land

Because of the high general metropolitan urban land value, the railway was built in underground, can save floor space, make the ground can land for other purposes.

To reduce the noise

Chengdu metro logo

Railway built in underground, can reduce the ground noise.

Reduce interference

Because of the subway route don't and other transport systems (such as surface roads) overlap, cross, therefore less driving traffic disturbance, can save a lot of commuting time.

To save energy

Under the global warming problem, the subway is the best public transport. Due to metro train operation speed stability, a large number of save commuting time, make people willing to take, can replace many of the energy consumed by a drive.

To reduce pollution

General motors use petrol or oil as an energy source, and the subway to use electricity, without exhaust emissions, will not pollute the environment.

Other advantages

One is a large capacity. 2 it is fast.

slide8

Construction cost is high

  • Due to drilling and digging underground, underground construction cost is higher than built in the ground.
  • Early time is long
  • In the early period of the construction of the subway for a long time, due to the need planning and government approvals, even need to test. From brewing to take action to break ground need very long time, short a few years, long has more than ten years is possible.
  • Safety performance
  • Although the subway to the snow and hail resistant ability is stronger. But for earthquakes, floods, fires and terrorism resistance is very weak. Due to the construction of the subway, extremely easy because these factors have a tragedy. Therefore since the emergence of the subway engineers are continuing research how to improve the safety of the subway.
地 铁 缺 点
slide9
主要用途

The vast majority of city rail transit system is used to carry the city commuter passengers, while in the city rail transit system on many occasions will be as the backbone of the city traffic. Usually, city rail transit system is a lot of city for a method to solve the problem of traffic jam.

  • The United States of Chicago had used to carry goods underground railway, London also has special delivery mail underground railway. But the two railway has been successively in 1959 and stopped in 2003. All the city underground railway for passenger service. In the war (such as the Second World War), underground railway will also be used as plant or shelter. Many countries (such as South Korea) metro system, in the design of the war may have in the design calculation, so both the depth, the crowd railway control, all while taking into account the daily transportation and national defense. Some parts of the underground railway construction in the ground for not only avoid ground traffic and housing, and to avoid the railway system by the outdoor weather damage, in addition, city track traffic system is also used for the display of the national economy, regard oneself head and shoulders above others in social and technical indicators. For example, the underground railway system in the former Soviet Union Station decorated with famous, and the underground railway system in the North Korean capital Pyongyang also have magnificent decoration.
  • In addition, some more advanced system has begun to introduce automatic train operating system. London, Paris, Taiwan, Singapore and Hongkong, who have no control of train. Some systems can achieve unmanned. For example, the world's longest automated LRT (light rapid transit system) system - Vancouver Skytrain, station and train the LRT and all are "no management". Shanghai Metro Line 1, line 2, line 3, line 4, line 8 has been achieved for driver monitoring, control switch door half unmanned, line 10 also piloted unmanned, then the driver will only monitoring.