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US Army CERDEC Development of Battlefield Fuel Cell Power. Beth Bostic US Army CERDEC Fuel Cell Team elizabeth.bostic@us.army.mil 703-704-1027. Agenda. Current Power Problem What is a Fuel Cell? Army Areas of Focus Benefits and Technical Challenges The Fuel Issue The Path Forward.

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us army cerdec development of battlefield fuel cell power

US Army CERDEC Development of Battlefield Fuel Cell Power

Beth Bostic

US Army CERDEC Fuel Cell Team

elizabeth.bostic@us.army.mil

703-704-1027

agenda
Agenda
  • Current Power Problem
  • What is a Fuel Cell?
  • Army Areas of Focus
  • Benefits and Technical Challenges
  • The Fuel Issue
  • The Path Forward
the power problem

FACT: Inadequate supplies of military batteries almost led U.S. forces to cease operations during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The power supply dictates mission tempo.

FACT: A soldier normally carries about 65 pounds worth of equipment and supplies in his or her rucksack. Currently, some soldiers are carrying upwards of 95 pounds.

The Power Problem

FACT: Over Half of today’s “Highly digitized C4ISR” Force is powered by 1980’s Generators. They are outdated and unreliable.

battlefield power

Forward Area Environment

Battlefield Power

SOLDIER

MOBILE

POWER GAP

Tactical Operation Center

Brigade

  • Disposable batteries are costly
  • Available energy NOT fully utilized
  • No Recharge capability
  • Too many battery types

No non-battery power away from vehicles, gensets, or wall plugs

SBCT I

  • ~1,200 gals fuel/day to theater; costs vary ($13 - $133/gal)
  • 133 Generators ( MTOE )
  • Too Large, Too Noisy, Not Efficient
  • Redundant Generators
  • No Smart Power Distribution

~$700K for 72 hrs

7 TONS of batteries!

  • 68 TONS of generators!
  • $45K-$465K (72 hrs)
  • 12 TONS Fuel!
potential power solutions
Potential Power Solutions
  • Advanced Disposable Batteries
  • Lithium Ion Pouch/Polymer Batteries
  • Fuel Cells
  • Stirling Engines
  • Flexible Solar Panels
  • Metal-Air Batteries
  • Advanced Internal-Combustion Generators

Soldier & Sensor Power

Battery Recharging

Auxiliary Power Units

Fuel Reforming

Component R&D

Vehicle Applications

what is a fuel cell

Electrons = Electricity

H2O & Heat Exhaust

OUT

IN

H2

Fuel

+ IONS

IN

O2

Air

Electrolyte

Cathode

(+ electrode)

Anode

(- electrode)

What is a Fuel Cell?

Electrochemical Energy Conversion Device

PEM Fuel Cells take in Hydrogen and Air (Oxygen) and, through a chemical reaction, make Water and Electricity.

cerdec focus areas
CERDEC Focus Areas

Located at Fort Belvoir, VA

approximately 20 miles south of Washington, DC

Soldier and Sensor Power

(0-100W)

Battery Charging

(100-500W)

Auxiliary Power Units

(500W-10kW)

Goal: Transition Technology to areas where it is needed most.

slide8

Portable Power Generation

Stationary Power

Soldier & Sensor Power

Focus on System Development, Test, Demonstration, and Transition

Communications-Electronics, Research Development and Engineering Center

(CERDEC)

Tank & Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center

(TARDEC)

Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory

(CERL)

Focus on Basic Materials R&D, Components, and Testing

Army Research Laboratory (ARL)

Army Research Office (ARO)

Army Fuel Cell Structure

slide9

Air Force

Navy

More Electric Aircraft

DARPA

FUEL CELL

Distributed Ship Power & Propulsion

Unmanned Vehicles & Sensor Power

Ground Support Equipment

Soldier Power

Logistics Fuel Reforming

Battery Recharging

Auxiliary Power Units

Light Vehicle Propulsion

Backup Stationary Power

Administrative FCV Demonstrations

Army

DoD Fuel Cell Efforts

benefits of fuel cell technology
Benefits of Fuel Cell Technology
  • Decreased acoustic signature
  • Decreased thermal signature
  • Longer, Lighter missions
  • Improved Efficiency
  • Increased Power Density
  • Significant Fuel Savings
  • Hybrid systems offer the best solution
technical challenges
Technical Challenges
  • Rugged System, durability in harsh environments
  • Reduce System Size and Weight
  • Reliability
    • Balance of Plant Components
    • Air side contamination
  • Water Management
  • Reduce Acoustic and Thermal Signatures
  • Orientation independent operation
  • Power Quality
  • Unit Cost
the fuel policy
The Fuel Policy

1999: DoD “One Fuel Forward” Policy states that the military can only develop or acquire power technologies that utilize currently supported military logistic fuels.

  • kerosene-based fuels such as JP-8 and JP-5 for land and ground forces

Larger power fuel cell power systems (>500W) must be logistically fueled.

PROBLEM: Logistic Fuels are not easily reformed into a hydrogen rich stream compatible with fuel cells.

fuel reforming issues
Fuel Reforming Issues
  • What is the target fuel cell?
  • Sulfur Removal
      • Regenerable Approach is preferred
      • Sulfur levels are variable in logistics fuel up to 3000ppm
  • Carbon Formation
      • Function of operating parameters
      • Sensitive trade off of performance
  • Water Management
      • Prefer NO external water source needed
  • System Performance
      • Efficiency
      • Start-up Time
      • Transient response
      • Thermal cycling
silent tactical power efforts
Silent Tactical Power Efforts

Logistics Fuel

Reforming

is critical

FY 08 Target 2-5kW Quiet Power Source

  • < 150 kgs, < 69dBA noise
  • TRL 5
  • JP-8 Fueled

System Specs

  • Two 1kW Methanol Reforming PEM units
  • 1kW Prototype Liquid Hydrocarbon fuel reforming system
  • 85-100 kg
  • 29” x 27” x 25”
tactical power benefits

Acoustic and Thermal Signature

2kW MTG

3kW TQG

1kW Idatech FCS-1200

Acoustic Signature

79 dBA

72 dBA

53 dBA

Tactical Power Benefits

2kW Fuel Cell for C3OTM

2003 Demonstration

  • Provided Silent Watch Capability
  • Thermally undetectable from three sides.
the path forward
The Path Forward
  • Reduce logistic footprint for power!
  • Focus on Near-Term Military Applications :
    • Soldier & Sensor Power
    • Auxiliary Power Units
    • Portable Battery Chargers
  • Fuel cells have the potential to significantly reduce weight & costs over traditional military power sources
  • Main Technology Barriers to Military Adaptation:
    • Fuel Supply
    • Affordability, and Reliability/Durability in the Field
  • Large Systems (+500W) must use Logistics Fuels
beth bostic us army cerdec fuel cell team elizabeth bostic@us army mil 703 704 1027

Questions?

Beth Bostic

US Army CERDEC Fuel Cell Team

elizabeth.bostic@us.army.mil

703-704-1027