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Workshop 4c Data Collection Stephanie J. Battles Energy Information Administration Dhaka, Bangladesh September 22, 1999 Data Collection Mail Survey Personal Interview Telephone Interview: Computer-Assisted Telephone Survey (CATI) Other Modes of Data Collection

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workshop 4c data collection

Workshop 4cData Collection

Stephanie J. Battles

Energy Information Administration

Dhaka, Bangladesh

September 22, 1999

data collection
Data Collection
  • Mail Survey
  • Personal Interview
  • Telephone Interview: Computer-Assisted Telephone Survey (CATI)
  • Other Modes of Data Collection
  • Multiple Modes of Data Collection
  • Survey Supplement Using A Subsample
  • Nonsampling Error
    • Nonresponse
    • Response
mail survey self reported data

Cost Effectiveness

Small Staff

Same Mailing Cost for 1 Question as it Costs for 100

Easily Target Population of Interest

Studies Show That More Answers Are Provided


Lower Response Rates

Need to Have Good Planning

Need Complete Mailing List

No Opportunity for Follow-up

Need Questions that are Simple and Short

Legible/Easy to Follow

Correct Language

Can Respondent Read?

Mail Survey(Self-Reported Data)
  • Design and Format Crucial
  • Future--CSAQ
mail survey example 1998 mecs
Mail SurveyExample: 1998 MECS
  • Three Different Forms, Forms A,B, and C
    • Form A: Collects Basic Data
    • Form B: Petroleum Refining
    • Form C: Establishments Who Ship Energy Offsite
  • 18,000 Establishments
  • Average Burden per Response--8.24 Hours
  • U.S. Census Bureau--Contractor
  • Two Mail Follow-Ups
  • Additional Telephone Follow-Up for the Largest Establishments Not Responding
personal interview face to face

High Response Rates Are Possible

Survey Questions Can be More Complex

Opportunity for Follow-Up Questions

Can Assist Respondents Who are Disabled, Aged or Other Problem



Need a Large Staff or Contract Personnel

Natural Disaster

Lose Portion of Sample

May Not Get Person Most Capable of Answering the Questions

Sample May Be in Restricted area

Personal Interview(Face-to-Face)
personal interview face to face6
Personal Interview(Face-to-Face)
  • Interviewer Training (Classroom/Self-study/Both)
  • Introductory Letter Before Initial Contact
    • Purpose of the Survey
    • Why Participation is Important
    • Confidential Responses
  • Exhibit Cards
  • Multicontacts
    • Callbacks at Different Times of the Day
  • Multiwave
    • Reassigned Different Interviewers
  • Use of Incentives
personal interview example 1997 recs
Personal InterviewExample-1997 RECS
  • Trainer Training
    • Three Days
  • Interviewer Training
    • Three Days (2 Sessions)/220 Interviewers
      • Washington D.C.
    • Topics Covered:
      • General Interviewing Techniques
      • RECS Background
      • Introduction to the CAPI system
      • Practice With Mock Interviews
      • Review of Administrative Requirements

All Training Sessions Were Monitored by EIA Staff

personal interview example 1997 recs8
Personal InterviewExample-1997 RECS
    • Training Manual
      • Locating Exercises
      • Identifying Respondents and Getting In the Door
      • Mock Exercises (one person is the interviewer..the other is the respondent)
    • Instruction Manual
      • Administrative Procedures
      • Identifying RECS Households
      • Conducting the Interview
      • Question by Question Discussion
    • Training Used Computer (CAPI)
  • Letter Sent Before Initial Contact
personal interview example 1997 recs9
Personal InterviewExample-1997 RECS
  • Data Collection Results
    • Average Time: 29 Minutes
    • Interviewers Conducted an Average of 27 Interviews
    • Median Number of Visits--3
    • 20% of the Interviews Were Were Verified by Mail or Telephone
    • Used Multicontact Approach
      • Different Time of Day
    • Used Multiwave Approach
      • Changed Interviewer
    • Mail Follow-Ups for Nonresponsive Households
      • Short Self-Administered Questionnaire
      • Sent Pen as an Incentive
personal interview example 1997 recs10
Personal InterviewExample-1997 RECS
  • Data Collection Response
    • 8,319 Listed Units--7,285 Eligible
      • Ineligible
        • Out of Scope, e.g. Business, Not Habitable
        • Vacant or Seasonal
    • 5,902 Completed (81% Response Rate)
    • 5% of the Personal Interviews Completed After the Second Wave (299)
    • 3 % of the Interviews Completed After the Mail Follow-up
      • 1,421 Households--Returned 10 % (181)
personal interview example 1997 recs11
High Response Rates

South (81.1%)

Midwest (80.2%)

Rural Areas (85%)

Single Family and Mobile Homes (80.5%)

Low Response Rates

Northeast (73.1%)

Urban/Suburbs (76.4%)

Large Apartment Buildings (72.1%)

Personal InterviewExample-1997 RECS

Response Rates and Household Characteristics

telephone interview cati

Increase Quality


Programmed to Correctly Skip Automatically

Edit Replies

Produce Statistics Quickly

Eliminates the Keying of the Data



Savings When the Survey is Large and/or Frequent and Questions Remain the Same

Lower Response Rates

Answering Machines

No Telephone

Up Front Costs


Telephone Interview(CATI)

Most Telephone Surveys are CATI

(Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviews)

other modes of data collection
Other Modes of Data Collection

BLS: Current



  • Touchtone Data Entry (TDE)
    • Alternative to Mail Collection
    • Questionnaire is on a Computer
    • Respondent Answers Prerecorded Questions Using the Touchtone Buttons
    • Useful for a Few Numbers
    • Eliminates Key Entry
  • Voice Recognition (VR)
    • Recognizes Numbers “0 to 9”, “Yes” and “No”
    • Useful for A Few Numbers
    • Accent Recognition Problem


other modes of data collection14
Other Modes of Data Collection
  • Facsimile Transmission (FAX)
    • Eliminates Mail Delays
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Collect Large Volumes of Data
    • Electronic Transmission is in a Standard Format
    • Errors are Reduced
    • Data are Instantly Available
  • Email Transmission
    • Paperless Collection
    • Eliminates Mail Delays
    • Errors/Costs Are Reduced
    • Confidentiality Issues

EIA’s Financial Reporting System

multiple modes of data collection
Multiple Modes of Data Collection
  • Survey Requires the Collection of Data from Different Respondent
  • Increase Survey Response Rates
    • Respondents May Favor One Mode Over Another
  • Certify Data Collected Are Correct
  • Reduce Costs
multiple modes of data collection example 1993 recs
Multiple Modes of Data CollectionExample: 1993 RECS
  • Personal Interview
    • Household/Housing Unit Data
    • Authorization Form
  • Mail Survey
    • Household Mail Survey
      • Obtain Data for Households Who Refused to Participate in the Personal Interview
    • Energy Supplier Survey
      • Natural Gas, Electricity, LPG, and Fuel Oil
      • Obtain Energy Consumption and Expenditure Data from the Household’s Energy Suppliers
multiple modes of data collection example 1993 recs17
Multiple Modes of Data CollectionExample: 1993 RECS
  • Telephone Survey
    • Rental Agent Survey
      • Verify Information Received From Certain Households Who Did not Pay for All Their Energy or Paid A Third Party and Rented or Owned Living Quarters in A Multi-Unit Building
survey supplement using a subsample
Survey Supplement Using A Subsample
  • Obtain Detailed Data
  • Use if Too Costly for the Full Sample
  • Use if Response Burden is a Concern
  • Use Data to Develop a Model Based on Data Available From the Full Survey
survey supplement using a subsample example 1993 recs lighting supplement
Survey Supplement Using A SubsampleExample: 1993 RECS Lighting Supplement
  • Purpose of the Supplement
    • Collect Data to Develop a Model to Predict Electricity Consumption for Lighting
  • Proportional Sample of All U.S. Households
  • 7% of the Completed Interviews
  • Lighting Model Used in Electricity Regression Equation Along Other End-Use Models, e.g. Space Heating.
nonsampling error unit nonresponse error
Nonsampling ErrorUnitNonresponse Error

Unit Nonresponse Error: Unit nonresponse error occurs when a sampling unit does not participate in the survey , e.g. household, building or establishment.

  • Unit Nonresponse
    • Refusal/Failure to Return Questionnaire
      • Sensitive Information
      • Incorrect Address
      • Not Have Resources or Time To Reply
      • Not Interested
      • Not Like the Sponsor
    • Could Not Be Located
    • Natural Disaster
    • Recently Vacant/Destroyed
    • Telephone Disconnected
nonsampling error unit nonresponse control of error
Nonsampling ErrorUnit Nonresponse :Control of Error
  • Sampling Unit’s Record Carefully Labeled and Transmitted
  • Prior Notice
  • Follow-Up
  • Incentives
  • Questionnaire Design
  • Confidentially Ensured
  • Reweighting the Sample
nonsampling error item nonresponse error
Nonsampling ErrorItemNonresponse Error

Item Nonresponse Error: Item nonresponse error occurs when a particular item of interest is missing from a questionnaire.

  • Sensitive Question
    • Confidentiality Issue
  • Recall
    • Aged or Disabled
  • Fatigue/Burden
    • Question Long and Complex
    • Open Question
  • Records Not Available
    • No Advance Notice
  • Interviewer Error
  • Programming Problems
nonsampling error item nonresponse control of error
Nonsampling ErrorItemNonresponse:Control of Error
  • Interviewer Training
  • Confidentiality Reminder
  • Use Memory Aids and Cues
  • Question Shorts and Simple
  • Questionnaire-Reasonable Length
    • Personal Interview, e.g. 60 Minutes
  • Understandable Skip Patterns
  • Limit Open Questions
  • Imputation
nonsampling error response error
Nonsampling ErrorResponse Error

Response Error: Response error occurs when the item

response is answered incorrectly.

  • Satisficing Answer
    • Doesn’t Care/Time Burden
  • Inability to Answer--A Guess
  • Deliberate Incorrect Response
    • Sensitive Question
    • Respondent Knows the “Correct Answer”
  • Invalid/Out of Date Records
  • Interviewer Incorrectly Records Response
  • Interviewer Bias
nonsampling error response error control of error
Nonsampling ErrorResponse Error:Control of Error
  • Importance of the Survey and Accurate Responses
  • Use Memory Aids/Examples
  • Ensure Confidentiality of Responses
  • Advance Notice
  • Interviewer Training
  • Locate the Respondent With the Proper Knowledge
  • Quality Control of the Interviewing Process
  • Allow Respondents to Ask Questions