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Selected Families of Hymenoptera. Dr. Vera Krischik, Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota. Characteristics of Hymenoptera. Two pairs of wings. Larvae are grub-like or caterpillar-like.

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Selected Families of Hymenoptera

Dr. Vera Krischik, Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota


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Characteristics of Hymenoptera

  • Two pairs of wings.

  • Larvae are grub-like or caterpillar-like.

  • Occur in a wide variety of habitats and have a wide variety of lifestyles: some feed on plants, some are predacious, some are scavengers.

  • Many are beneficial, others are pests.

  • Apocrita (bees, wasps, and ants) have a narrow waist, Symphyta (sawflies and horntails) don’t.


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Sawflies

FamiliesTenthredinidaeand DiprionidaeHosts: Manydeciduous andconiferous plants.Life History:Females use theirsaw-like ovipositors to insert eggs in plant tissues. Larvae defoliate or mine leaves or needles. One or more generations a year.

Steve Katovich, USDA Forest Service

Neodiprion sertifer


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Sawflies

Overwintering: Eggs, larvae, or pupae.Physical Control: Remove groups of larvae.Cultural Control: Minimize stress on plants.Chemical Control: Horticultural oil or insecticides.Biological Control:Many parasites,predators, andNPV virus.

Neodiprion lecontei

David Laughlin


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Horntails

Family SiricidaeHosts: Dead and dying beech, elm, maple, oak, and others.Life History: Females lay eggs singly in hosts. Larvae may take two years to develop.

Drees

Tremex columba


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Braconid Wasps

Family Braconidae

Hosts: Aphids, larvaeof beetles, flies,sawflies, andcaterpillars such astomato hornworm,imported cabbageworm, gypsy moth.Life History: Life cycle is 10–14 days. Larvae are internal parasitoids; many pupate outside hosts. More females than males.

John Davidson


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Braconid Wasps

John Davidson

Cotesia congregata cocoons on tomato hornworm

Aphid mummies with braconid emergence holes


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Ichneumonid Wasps

Family Ichneumonidae

Hosts: Larvae andpupae of beetles,wasps, andcaterpillars,armyworms, cabbagelooper, fall webworm, oakworms, tent caterpillars, tussock moths, European corn borer.Life History: Larvae are internal or externalparasitoids.

Whitney Cranshaw


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Ichneumonid Wasps

Adult Ichneumonid wasps: note the long ovipositor of the female wasp (below)

John Davidson

John Davidson


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Trichogramma Wasps

Order HymenopteraFamilyTrichogrammatidae

Hosts: Sawfly andmoth eggs,cabbageworm, tomatohornworm, corn earworm, codling moth, cutworm, armyworm, cabbage looper, European corn borer, tomato fruitworm.Life History: Larvae are internal parasitoidsof other insects.

University of California at Berkeley


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Aphelinid Wasps

Family Aphelinidae

Hosts: Aphids, mealybugs, psyllids, scales, and whiteflies.Life History: Solitary,lay eggs in or outsidehosts. Femalesusually reproduceparthenogenetically,males are rare.

John Davidson

Encarsia formosa adult


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Aphelinid Wasps

John Davidson

John Davidson

Empty pupal cases of greenhouse whiteflies and black parasitized pupae containing Encarsia formosa

Encarsia formosa


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Encyrtid Wasps

Family Encyrtidae

Hosts: Ticks, insect eggs, larvae, and pupae; beetles,bugs, moths, mealybugs, scales.Life History: Larvae are parasitoids;adults live 2–3 days.

John Davidson

John Davidson

Top: Encyrtus fuscus reared from hemispherical scaleBottom: Parasitized hemispherical scales turned black


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Chalcid Wasps

Family Chalcididae

Hosts: Moths, butterflies, beetles, flies, other wasps.Life History: Larvae are internal parasitoids of other insects.

John Davidson

David Laughlin


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Gall Wasps

Minnesota DNR ArchivesMinnesota Department of Natural Resourceswww.forestryimages.org

Family CynipidaeHosts: Some are hyperparasitoids on other wasps, but most induce galls on oaks or rosaceous plants.

Left: Galls on oak leafAbove: Callirhytis cornigera galls on oak

Ronald F. BillingsTexas Forest Servicewww.forestryimages.org


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Gall Wasps

Life History: Females lay eggs in stems, buds, leaves, or flowers. Larval feeding causes gall formation. Some species alternate sexual and asexual generations.

Jerry A. PayneUSDA ARSwww.forestryimages.org

Dryocosmus kuriphilus larvae (far left) and adults

Jerry A. Payne, USDA ARSwww.forestryimages.org


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Scelionid Wasps

Order HymenopteraFamily Scelionidae

Hosts: Insect and spider eggs, especiallythose of true bugs and moths. Life History:Larvae areinternalparasitoids ofother insectsand spiders.

John Davidson


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Sphecid Wasps

Family SphecidaeHosts: Other arthropods.

Ronald F. BillingsTexas Forest Servicewww.forestryimages.org

Cicada killer (Sphecius speciosus) with prey


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Sphecid Wasps

Life History: Solitary; females provision nests with paralyzed caterpillars, spiders, or other prey, where larvae feed on the prey. One or more generations a year, depending on species. Overwintering:Larvae or pupae.

Gerald J. LenhardLouisiana State Universitywww.forestryimages.org

Cicada killer Sphecius speciosus


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Sphecid Wasps

Jackman

Mud dauberChalybion caementarium

G. McIlveen, Jr.

Mud dauberChalybion californicum


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Sweat Bees

Family HalictidaeHosts: Flower nectar and pollen.Life History: Some are solitary and others are social (live in colonies). Colonies are annual, occurring incavities orundergroundburrows. Manyare very colorfuland metallic.

L. WestPhoto Researchers, Inc.


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Leafcutting Bees

Marshall BlackAnimals Animals or Earth Scenes

Family MegachilidaeHosts: Flower nectarand pollen; leavesare cut to make cells.Life History: Most aresolitary. Females cutleaves to make cells.The females depositan egg and provision each cell with pollen before sealing the cells. Larvae feed on pollen and develop in the cells.

Megachile willoughbiella


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Carpenter Bees

Family ApidaeHosts: Feed on pollen and nectar but make tunnels in redwood, cedar, cypress, and pine.

Jerry A. PayneUSDA ARSwww.forestryimages.org

Xylocopa virginica


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Carpenter Bees

Life History: In spring females make tunnels or use existing tunnels in which they lay eggs and insert pollen. Larvae develop in the tunnels. There may be several generations per year.Overwintering:Adults in nests.

USDA Forest ServiceWood Products Insect Lab ArchivesUSDA Forest Servicewww.forestryimages.org


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Honey Bees

Apis melliferaFamily ApidaeHosts:Flower nectar and pollen.

Scott BauerUSDA ARSwww.forestryimages.org

Jerry A. PayneUSDA ARSwww.forestryimages.org


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Honey Bees

Life History: Honeybee colonies are perennial. New colonies form when an old queen swarms with a group of workers. The queen mates with unrelated males. Fertilized eggs become workers; males(unfertilizedeggs) areproduced priorto swarming.Overwintering:Active in nestsduring winter.

Carl Dennis, Auburn University, www.forestryimages.org


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Bumble Bees

Bombus spp.Family ApidaeHosts: Flower nectar and pollen.

Jerry A. PayneUSDA ARSwww.forestryimages.org


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Bumble Bees

Life History: Colonies are annual. Fecundated queens emerge in spring and begin colonies in the ground. Males and new queens are produced in fall. New queens mate with unrelated males before overwintering in the ground.Overwintering:New queens inthe ground.

Jerry A. PayneUSDA ARSwww.forestryimages.org


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Tiphia Wasp

Tiphia vernalisFamily Tephiidae

Hosts: Japanese beetles.Life History: Adults emergein spring and femalesparasitize Japanese beetlelarvae in the ground. Wasplarvae (one per beetle)consume grubs beforemaking cocoons in the soil.One generation per year.Overwintering: Pupae in cocoons.

www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/biocontrol/j_beetle.htm


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Velvet Ants

Dasymutilla occidentalis

Family MutillidaeHosts: Larvae ofwasps, bees,beetles, or flies.Life History:The larvae ofthese insects areparasites of otherinsect larvae. They occur in the southern USA and have painful stings. Some are known as “cow killers.”

Drees


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Vespid Wasps

Order HymenopteraFamily Vespidae

Hosts: Caterpillars and other insects. May bother people at picnics.

John Davidson

Yellow jacket with caterpillar

Life History: Many have annual colonies with queens, workers, and males.

Paper wasp (Polistes species)


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Ants

Family FormicidaeHosts: Most feed on a variety of plant and animal material, such as other arthropods, nectar, honeydew, and human food. Leafcutting antscultivate and feedon a fungus.Carpenter antsnest in wood butfeed on plant andanimal material.

Arnold T. Drooz, USDA Forest Servicewww.forestryimages.org

Ants tending scales


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Ants

Life History: All are eusocial. Colonies in Minnesota are annual. Fecundated queens emerge in spring and begin colonies underground or in cavities. Males are produced in the fall prior to dispersal. New queens mate with unrelated males before overwintering in the ground or crevices. Some ants tend aphids. Leafcutting ants grow a fungus in their tunnels. Carpenter ants tunnel in dead wood. Fire ants occur in the southern USA and have a painful sting. Many unusual ants (weaver ants, army ants, etc.) occur in the tropics, where colonies may live for years.


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Ants

Clemson UniversityUSDA Cooperative Extension Slide Serieswww.forestryimages.org

Carpenter ant(Camponotus sp.)adult and galleries

R. Werner, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org


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Ants

Drees

Drees

Pharoah antMonomorium pharaonis

Dorymyrmex insanus mound


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Ants

Jackman

Drees

Harvester antsPogonymyrmex barbatus

Leafcutting antAtta texana