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Scientific Innovations Inc. Joseph H. Brondo, Jr., CEO Brookhaven National Laboratory Lucian Wielopolski, PhD. PowerPoint Presentation
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Scientific Innovations Inc. Joseph H. Brondo, Jr., CEO Brookhaven National Laboratory Lucian Wielopolski, PhD.

Scientific Innovations Inc. Joseph H. Brondo, Jr., CEO Brookhaven National Laboratory Lucian Wielopolski, PhD.

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Scientific Innovations Inc. Joseph H. Brondo, Jr., CEO Brookhaven National Laboratory Lucian Wielopolski, PhD.

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  1. Inc. Innovations SCIENTIFIC EXPLOSIVE DETECTION SYSTEMS (EDS) Based on GAMMA RESONANCE TECHNOLOGY (GRT) Scientific Innovations Inc. Joseph H. Brondo, Jr., CEO Brookhaven National Laboratory Lucian Wielopolski, PhD. September 2002 Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  2. EDS-GRT Objectives A Joint Program by Scientific Innovations, Inc. Brookhaven National Laboratory In Collaboration with Advanced Energy Systems, Inc. NSNRC Rapid deployment of resonance technology for detection and imaging of concealed explosives, chemical warfare agents, and dirty and nuclear bombs in shipping containers Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  3. EDS-GRT: Organization Liaison With Industry Principal Patent Holder Scientific Innovations Inc. Brookhaven National Laboratory R&D Accelerator Electronics Targets System Integration Advanced Energy Systems Inc. Engineering, Production Nuclear Research Center Soreq, Israel Resonance Detectors, Software Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  4. EDS-GRT System ConfigurationPatents by Scientific Innovations, Inc. An accelerator is used to produce protons at a specific energy such that unique resonant gamma rays are generated from impingement on a specific target. The emitted gamma rays pass through a volume of interest and interact resonantly with specific elements of interest so that images of the elemental density are developed from the variation in gamma detection counts. Fluorescence or scattered gammas resonant with the element are also detected simultaneously. Non resonant gamma rays are used to image total density. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  5. EDS-GRT: Explosives Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  6. EDS-GRT: Explosives Where: TNT – 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene RDX – Hexogen HMX – Octogen Tetryl – PETN – Nitropenta NG – Nitroglycerin EGDN – Ethylene glycol dinitrate AN – Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) TATP – DNB – 1,3-Dinitrobenzene Picric acid - About 80% of the explosives contain N, those that do not contain N contain Cl. New explosive without N and Cl are rich in C, O. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  7. EDS-GRT: Other Materials Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  8. EDS-GRT Advantages In a two dimensional plot simultaneous registration of the total density and the nitrogen density separates the explosives from other common materials. This two dimensional Matrix Provides for fully automatic identification of explosives Addition of other elements willprovide for a multi- dimensional matrix Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  9. EDS-GRT: Requirements • An ideal EDS system will • 1) Detect directly presence of an explosive. • 2) Identify the type of explosive. • 3) Localize the explosive. • 4) Minimize false positives. • 5) Operate reliably in the field. • 6) Provide high throughput. • 7) Would not induce residual activity. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  10. * Low False Alarm Rate (<5%) *Based on simulations to satisfy FAA requirements of sensitivity and throughput. EDS-GRT: Key Advantages • *High Detection Probability (>90%) • * High Throughput (400 bags/hr/station, • 24 LD-3/hr/station) • Specific Sensitivity to Explosives (N, Cl, O) • No Induced Radioactivity • Multi-port feed-through capability Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  11. BNL: Lucian Wielopolski, Ph.D. SII: Joseph Brondo, CEO Collaborators AES: Joseph Sredniawski, VP NSNRC: David Vartsky Ph.D. September, 2002 Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) based on Gamma Resonance Technology (GRT) Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  12. EDS-GRT: Current Location The System Has Been Located at BNL in Bldg. 945 9 4 54 Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  13. 1 Operational High Intensity Resonance Source at Northrop Grumman Prior to Transfer to BNL 2 Partial Installation of the Resonance Source at BNL Site For R&D and Testing of Resonance Technology. 3 Specialized Resonance Detectors for Nitrogen, Used in Proof-of-Principle Demonstration, Were Developed. EDS-GRT Accomplishments Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  14. BULK ANALYSIS Trace Analysis Other Nuclear Neutrons X-Ray Gamma Backscatter Thermal Neutron Analysis Associated Alpha Particle Time of Flight Standard Transmission Gamma Transmission Computed Tomography Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis Dual Energy Gamma Resonance Technology Neutron Backscatter Diffraction Pulsed Fast Thermal Neutron Analysis Backscatter Electromagnetic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR/ESR Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance NQR EDS-GRT: Current Technologies SII PATENTS Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  15. EDS-GRT: Basic Principles Gamma Resonance occurs when the energy of a gamma beam is precisely tuned to coincide with a nuclear excitation level in a nucleus of an element of interest. GRT can be implemented in either absorption (transmission) or scattering mode. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  16. Target A low energy proton beam hits a dedicated target and produces resonance gamma rays. These interact resonantly with N or Cl encountered in the explosive. Monitoring the transmitted and the scattered beams, with the transmission and scattering detectors, respectively, allows analysis and imaging of the elements of interest. Accelerator Protons Scattering Detectors Object Scattered Beam Transmitted Beam Transmission Detectors EDS-GRT: Basic Configurations Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  17. EDS-GRT: Transmission Setup measures simultaneously the resonantt and non resonant gamma ray flux and can differentiate between the two. The ratio of the two identifies the explosive At 9.17 MeV gamma ray resonance attenuation is about four times higher than the non resonant radiation. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  18. Resonant Gamma Fan Proton Beam Accelerator Inspected Object Beam Production Target Detector Array EDS-GRT: In a Transmission Mode Configuration of the gamma resonance absorptiometry Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  19. Accelerator Proton Beam Beam Production Target Object Resonant Gamma Fan Detector Array EDS-GRT Resonance Principle Gamma resonance scanning beam from accelerator based system SII Patents Patent 5,040,200 Patent 5,293,414 Patent 6,215,851 Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  20. EDS-GRT: Unilateral System Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  21. EDS-GRT Accomplishments • DC Tandem Accelerator Design Specifications • Energy tunable up to ~ 1.9 MeV  • Beam current, ~2 mA, up to ~ 10 mA • Total Emittance ~0.1 pi mm mrad  • Beam spread < 25 keV  Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  22. Two Projection images through an aircraft container loaded with mixed cargo containing six explosives. The nitrogen image clearly identifies the explosives. Nahal Soreq group experimental set-up at Los Alamos inspecting LD-3 air cargo container EDS-GRT Accomplishments Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  23. Test Set Up Using Explosive Simulants (nitrogenous material) And Other Objects Total Density Image Nitrogen Density Image Highlights Explosive Simulants And Makes Lead Brick Transparent EDS-GRT Proof-of-Principle Proof-of-Principle Demonstrated by Soreq Group Using Resonance Detectors: Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  24. Tissue N ~ 2.7% Explosive N ~ 19% - 30%. Gammagram Nitrogram Nahal Soreq Group Experiment at McMaster University EDS-GRT Proof-of-Principle Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  25. EDS-GRT-Targets • Single Element Targets • Multi-element (layered) Targets • Multi-element (segmented) Targets Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  26. Composite Targets At Ep 1.94 MeV, 26Mg & 30Si to detect 14N, 16O, and 35Cl 27Al @ θ~40o 7.117 MeV 16O 26Mg & 30Si (p,γ) @ θ~117o 9.082 MeV 35Cl 31P @ θ~86o 9.173 MeV 14N EDS-GRT: Targets • Layered Targets • CS2 – Enriched in 13C and 34S for detection of N and Cl. • BN (Boron Nitrate enriched with 13C) 13C; 11B; 15N; with Ep @ 1.75; 1.1; 0.6; MeV respectively, we can measure N; C; and O, simultaneously. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  27. EDS-GRT: Accelerators • The Basic Requirements Are: • Variable Energy In The Range 0.5 - 3MeV • High Intensity > 3 mA. • Accelerator Types: • DC Tandem Accelerators • Electrostatic (6MeV, 60mA) • Linear RFQ • New Types Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  28. 2000 High-Voltage Cable 1200 Positive Ion Source 2500 Accelerator Tube 800 Beam 2MV Power Supply 2000 1200 EDS-GRT: Accelerators ECR Ion Source 30 mA p, 1kW HVC can be 100’ or more from accelerator 2MeV 50mA, 2.5MeV 40mA, 3MeV 30mA Multiple accelerators with single Power Supply Dimensions in mm Power requirements 3Phase, 440 V , 80 KVA Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  29. EDS-GRT: Detectors • Type: • Resonance • LS +N • Non-resonance • HPGe, NaI • BGO, LSO, BaF • Position sensitive • High Z sandwich • Optimization: • Geometry • Number • Configuration • Electronics • Size Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  30. Beam Pyrex Vessel 20x20x240 mm NRLS Light Guide 2” PM Tube RT 1.3 ns Particle Identification PH p e t 50 100 nsec EDS-GRT: Detectors Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  31. EDS-GRT: Detectors NE – 213 Organic Solvent + Primary Solute + Wavelength Shifter (~90%) (~10%) (~0.5%) p-xylene naphtalene PPO+POPOP emiss. ~280nm emiss. ~330nm emiss. ~425 nm Properties Density (ρ) 0.9 g/cc N Content 30% bw Detector size 5x5x22 cm3 Resonance Attenuation ((γ,p) σR) 0.052 cm2/g (exp) Non-Resonance Attenuation (σNR) 0.022 cm2/g Macroscopic ΣR = σR%ρ (0.052x0.3x0.9) 0.0140 cm-1 Macroscopic ΣNR =σNR ρ(0.022x0.9) 0.0198 cm-1 ΣT 0.0338 cm-1 εR = (ΣR / ΣT)(1-exp(- ΣTL) = 24% Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  32. EDS-GRT: Detectors εR = (ΣR / ΣT)(1-exp(- ΣTL) = 24% For very long detector εR = 41% For 100% N detector εR = 70% Photopeak εBGO = 56% • For small differential changes in the attenuation • contrast is more critical than efficiency. • Resonant fraction in an incident gamma flux is about • 25%. • Experimentally contrast in a BGO was diluted by a • factor of 3. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  33. EDS-GRT: Resonance Detectors Two dimensional pulse distribution from a resonance detector clearly separates proton pulses from electron pulses. Thus distinguishing resonance gamma radiation from non-resonant. Proton pulses at 1.5 MeV are produced in the detector by the inverse (γ,p) reaction of the resonance radiation with the N in the detector. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  34. Stadiums & Olympic Events Border Control Airline Security RT-EDIS Shipping Ports Bridges/Tunnels Building & Monument Security Power Plant Security Force Protection Postal Security EDS-GRT Applications Embassies Railroad Security Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  35. Department of Transportation (DoT) • TSA / FAA • Explosives Detection in Cargo • Checked baggage inspection Resonance Technology • Scanning trucks/vehicles/railroad cars Force Protection (DoD) • Military Bases • Counter-terrorism • Explosives Detection in Vehicles US Customs • Border Control Warhead/Rocket QC (DoD) • Seaports • Crack & Void Detection • Explosives / Drug Detection • Mixture Quality in Large Containers • 24% Rejection / Shelf Life Medical Research • Neutron Capture Therapy Environmental Cleanup (DoD) ) • Whole Body Composition • Unexploded Ordnance Detection • Mine Field Clearance EDS-GRT: Potential Users Homeland Security Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  36. EDS-GRTLD-3 Container Inspection Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  37. EDS-GRTAirport Luggage A configuration of a system in an airport feeding simultaneously two inspection stations for bags. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  38. EDS-GRT Future Plans To Construct Deployable Inspection Systems Capable To Interrogate Small (postage parcel) And Large (ship containers) Bulk Materials, Using High Resolution Medium Intensity And Low Resolution High Intensity Accelerators, Respectively. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  39. EDS-GRT High Throughput Configuration • A single accelerator module can drive multiple detection modules simultaneously to give high throughputs. This requires a special gamma production target (Patent 6,215,430 and Patent 5,784,430) Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  40. Detectors Stacked Containers Resonance Gamma Beam Target 8’ 21’ 18’ 36’ EDS-GRT: Large Cargo Screening Using four ramps may interrogate simultaneously 40 foot container in about 3 to 4 minutes, stacked containers will double the capacity. (Extrapolated from experiments) Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  41. EDS-GRT Time Shared Configuration • Single accelerator • serves multiple • detection stations Each detection station can process 1600 bags/hr, 24 LD-3 containers/hr, 4 conveyors simultaneously High speed mail hubs, checked luggage, containers Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  42. EDS-GRT: Processing Rates • Each target can process about 4x400 bags/hr, • 24 LD-3 containers/hr • 4 conveyors simultaneously • Interrogate 40 foot container in about 3 to 4 minutes, stacked containers will double the capacity. (Extrapolated from current measurements.) Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  43. EDS-GRT Truck Inspection Force Protection, Borders, Power Plants, Bridges and Tunnels Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  44. EDS-GRT Advantages • High Detection Probability (>90%) • Low False Alarm Rate (<5%) • High Throughput (1600 bags/hr, 24LD-3/hr, ~3min/truck)/station • Specific Explosive Signature (Chemical elements) • Fully Automated Decision Making • Single Source Can Feed Multiple Inspection • Stations (in parallel or in time share modes) • Suitable for Inspection of Postal Parcels Up To Large Vehicles or Shipping Containers • No Residual Activity • Elemental 3-D Imaging Capability Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  45. EDS-GRT False Alarm versus scan time Data Based Upon 10 mA of Proton Current and 90% Detection Probability Thin Sheet High Explosive 100 cm (suitcase) 145 cm (small carousel) 252 cm dia container (LD-3) Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  46. EDS-GRT: Public safety • Accelerator produces low energy x-rays. • Target produces only gamma radiation, no neutrons. • Shielded highly collimated beam. • Dose to image N in human body 0.026 mrem. • Dose to stowaway will be considerable lower. • Gamma flux is two to three orders of magnitude • lower than for VACIS or CT systems. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  47. EDS-GRT Path Forward • 1. Complete BNL Development and Test Facility (1y) • Complete Facility • Target Development • Detectors Development • System Integration and Testing • 2. Setup a Low Rate Production Facility (1-2y) • Set Up Low Rate Production Facility • Production Engineering Design • Production of a Small and Large Cargo Inspection Systems • Field evaluation • 3. Establish a High Rate Production Facility (2-3y) Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  48. Project Manager BNL Scientific Innovations Detectors BNL Accelerator BNL System Integration BNL Nahal Soreq Resonance Detectors Nahal Soreq Software BNL/Nahal Soreq AES AES Position Sensitive Detectors TRIUMF SII SII – Scientific Innovations Inc. AES – Advanced Energy Systems Inc. Nahal Soreq – Nuclear Research Center New Detectors Cl, Ca, LSO Target BNL EDS-GRT: R&D Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  49. Tandem Accelerator (TA) LC System Integration Targets LC System Testing & Evaluation Detectors System Engineering TA Infrastructure Documentation 0 6 9 12 Month 3 EDS-GRT: Time Schedule Test facility can be ready within a year. Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory

  50. EDS-GRT: GRT versus PFNA • Both technologies provide sensitivity and specificity to the elemental • composition of the cargo This is the future way of interogation • GRT is considerable reduced in size. Does not require a separate • building, nor extensive shielding ( requires soft X-ray shielding) • GRT does not activate the cargo nor the building. • GRT does not require building decontamination • GRT price is about one third of that announced for PFNA • GRT data analysis for image reconstruction is similar to that used for • CT image processing with superior spatial resolution • GRT can feed distributed systems simultaneously and is independent • of the cargo content Scientific Innovations, Inc Brookhaven National Laboratory