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“Radical Reconstruction”???. Failure to implement truly radical measures during reconstruction failed to truly help southern Blacks while thoroughly angering and alienating southern whites. I. After Appomattox: The Ultimate Questions. How do you reconstruct the Union?

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radical reconstruction

“Radical Reconstruction”???

Failure to implement truly radical measures during reconstruction failed to truly help southern Blacks while thoroughly angering and alienating southern whites.

i after appomattox the ultimate questions
I. After Appomattox: The Ultimate Questions
  • How do you reconstruct the Union?
  • How far should the federal government go to insure Black freedom and civil rights?
ii philosophies of reconstruction
II. Philosophies of Reconstruction
  • Presidential

--quick restoration with minimal protection for southern Blacks

  • Congressional

-- “loyal” southern governments to replace ex-confederates

--Southern Blacks need basic rights of American citizenship

iii presidential reconstruction
III. Presidential Reconstruction
  • Lincoln’s 10% plan
  • Battle over who had the power to reconstruct the Union
  • Andrew Johnson’s background

--hated southern planters

--no friend of Blacks

  • Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan (May, 1865)
iv radical republicans gain the upper hand
IV. Radical Republicans Gain the Upper Hand
  • Johnson’s controversial vetoes
  • Johnson’s opposition to the 14th amendment
  • The “Swing Around the Circle” (1866)
  • Republicans won veto-proof majorities in the 1866 election
v congressional reconstruction begins in 1867
V. Congressional Reconstruction (Begins in 1867)
  • Reconstruction Act of 1867
  • Military rule of the south
  • Readmission of states with guarantees of Black suffrage
  • Exclusion of ex-Confederates from government office
  • Radicals wanted redistribution of land to Blacks—too radical
vi the impeachment crisis
VI. The Impeachment Crisis
  • Johnson tries to obstruct congressional reconstruction with executive privilege
  • Tenure of Office Act
  • Johnson tries to remove Secretary of War Stanton
  • Impeachment and Trial in the Senate
  • Process neutralized Johnson
vii reconstruction in the south
VII. Reconstruction in the South
  • A Condition of Ruin
  • “Forty Acres and a Mule”
  • Blacks resist gang labor after the War
  • Development of Sharecropper system
  • Black Codes
  • The Segregated South
  • Freedmen faced violence if they tried to vote
viii the southern republican party
VIII. The Southern Republican Party
  • Hastily organized for 1868 elections
  • Three constituencies:

--southern Blacks

--northern businessmen

--poor, white farmers

  • Some success, some corruption
  • Blacks held only limited political offices in the south
ix the fifteenth amendment
IX. The Fifteenth Amendment
  • Highpoint of Reconstruction era
  • Ratified in 1870
  • Ambiguous wording allowed the future use of literacy tests, poll taxes, and property requirements
  • Worked to divide the feminist movement
x grant and the retreat from reconstruction
X. Grant and the Retreat from Reconstruction
  • Rise of the Ku Klux Klan between 1868-1872
  • Inconsistent use of federal troops to protect Black voters
  • Northern disenchantment with “propping up” corrupt southern state governments
  • Open southern appeal to white supremacy after 1872
x retreat from reconstruction cont
X. Retreat from Reconstruction (cont.)
  • Grant administration facing charges of corruption

-- Credit Mobilier scandal

  • Radical Republicans dying or out of office
  • Civil service reform replaces Black civil rights as the major political issue of the time
xi the compromise of 1877
XI. The Compromise of 1877
  • The election of 1876
  • Tilden vs. Hayes
  • Disputed votes in the electoral college
  • Electoral commission fell under Republican control
  • Hayes’ victory in exchange for southern “home rule”
  • Eliminates Republican party in the south
xii the new south
XII. The “New South”
  • Redemption governments
  • Laissez-faire policies and white supremacy
  • Northern industry attracted to no taxes and low wages for workers
  • Corrupt governments
xii the new south cont
XII. “The New South” (cont.)
  • Lynchings common
  • Poor whites neglected just as much as Blacks
  • Some Blacks continue to vote until the 1890’s
  • Supreme Court decisions between 1875-1896 gutted Reconstruction

--Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

xii the new south cont1
XII. “The New South” (cont.)
  • Signs of sectional healing: Battlefield reunions
  • Sectional reconciliation made possible by northern abandonment of Black rights
  • “Lost Cause” myth also helps reconcile the two regions
  • Blacks bore the burden of sectional reconciliation