Plumbing Part 1 – water systems and pipe material SW Wong MIOP, RP
Water Source for Hong Kong • Water From Guangdong • Main Source • Rain Water • From Rainwater Collection Area • Well • Used in Remote Area
Flushing Water Source for Hong Kong • Sea Water • Main Source • Fresh Water • No sea water supply for some area • Well • Used in Remote Area
Water Connection to Plumbing System Rainwater Collection Reservoir Water from Guangdong Distributed Reservoir Water Treatment Plant Distributed Reservoir Distributed Reservoir Consumers Consumers Consumers
Type of Plumbing System • -Cold water supply system • - Hot water supply system • - Surface water drainage above ground • Foul water drainage above ground • Drainage below ground
Cold Water Supply System • Direct System – water is distributed by means of reservoir head • b. Indirect System – water is collected in sump tank and pump • to storage tank where water is distributed • by gravity. • c. Booster Pump System - used in low pressure area.
Hot Water System • Centralised System - water is heated and stored centrally and distributed throughout the building by means of pipeworks. • b. Localised Water Heating System - supply of hot water by localised systems use electric or gas water heater sited either directly over the fitting being supplied.
Surface Drainage Above Ground Collecting rainwater onto the roof of building and discharging it away to the underground drainage system outside the building. Foul Drainage Above Ground Collecting soil, waste, and ventilation pipework and fittings in the building. It functions to convey discharges from appliance to underground drains and can be arranged in three different ways: two-pipes, one-pipe and single-stack systems.
Drainage Below Ground • Separated System is used in Hong Kong • Drain – collecting rainwater and discharged to • nullah and river. • b. Sewer - collecting foul water and discharged to • wastewater treatment plant in cities
Materials for Potable Water Supply • Ductile Iron Pipe to BS 4772 • Copper pipe to BS 2871 • Polyethylene (PE) pipe to BS 6370 or BS 6572 • Stainless steel pipe to BS 4127 • PB pipe to BS 7291 Pt 1 & 2 • Lined (uPVC / Polyethylene lining) GI Pipe – approved type • PEX pipe to BS7291 Pt 1 & 3
Pipe Material for Flushing Water Supply • Cast Iron Pipe to BS 4622 • uPVC pipe to BS 3505 Class D & E • PVC-C (Chlorinated) Pipe to BS 7291 Pt. 1 & 4 • Ductile Iron Pipe to BS 4772 (cement lining)
Pipe Material for Drainage Above Ground • Cast Iron Pipe to BS 416 • uPVC pipe to BS 4514 / BS 5255 / AS 1415 • Pipe Material for Drainage Below Ground • Cast Iron Pipe to BS 437 / BS 1211 • Concrete Pipe • French Red Pipe • Vitrified Clay Pipe