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13. New Encounters: The Creation of a World Market. An Age of Exploration and Expansion. Islam and the Spice Trade Spice trade transported in Muslim ships from India or Middle East Islam established in Sumatra and Java seaports and moved inland

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New encounters the creation of a world market


New Encounters: The Creation of a World Market

An age of exploration and expansion
An Age of Exploration and Expansion

  • Islam and the Spice Trade

    • Spice trade transported in Muslim ships from India or Middle East

    • Islam established in Sumatra and Java seaports and moved inland

    • New sultanate at Malacca – leading economic regional power

    • Spread of Islam to other trading ports, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines

    • Muslim faith and Sufism

  • Spread of Islam in West Africa

    • Muslim trade and religious influence expanded south of Sahara to West Africa

    • Muslim control over Mediterranean coast regions brought Islamic values, political culture, and legal traditions

    • Kingdom of Mali

    • Kingdom of Songhai

    • Askia Mohammed, a fervent Muslim

A new player europe
A New Player: Europe

  • European medieval travelers

    • Nicolò, Maffeo, and Marco Polo, 1271

  • The Motives

    • Economic motive, religious zeal, expansion a state,

      “God, glory, and gold”

    • Rise of capitalism: expansion of trade and search for metals

    • Crusading mentality strong in Portugal and Spain

  • The Means

    • European monarchies increased authority and resources, so turned to the world beyond their borders

    • Portugal went overseas – not strong enough to pursue Europe

    • Spain: had means to pursue power on Continent and beyond

    • Knowledge and technology

    • Portolani (charts), seaworthy ships, sails, rudder, compass

Portuguese maritime empire
Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • The Portuguese lead in exploration

    • Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)

    • Sought Christian kingdom as ally against Muslims

    • Sought new trade opportunities

    • Explored west coast of Africa for gold

    • Returned with black Africans who were sold as slaves

  • The Portuguese in India

    • Route to India around southern tip of Africa

    • Bartolomeu Dias, 1487 attempts to get to India – failed

    • Vasco da Gama, 1498 finds India and lands in Calicut

  • The Search for Spices

    • Alfonso de Albuquerque 1510 established headquarters at Goa

    • Attacked Malacca to destroy the Arab spice trade network and provide way station

    • Expeditions to China and Moluccas (Spice Islands)

    • Seized control of spice trade from Muslin traders

    • Success due to guns and seamanship

Spanish conquest in the new world
Spanish Conquest in the “New World”

  • The Voyages

    • Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)

    • Voyages in 1492, 1493, 1498, and 1502

  • John Cabot, 1497

    • New England

  • Pedro Cabral, 1500

    • South America

  • Amerigo Vespucci, wrote letters named new lands “America” (after Amerigo)

The conquests
The Conquests

  • Opportunities for conquest and exploitation

  • Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494

    • Cape of Good Hope route for Portuguese

    • Route across Atlantic for Spain

  • Spanish conquistadors: upper-class people motivated by glory, greed, and religious zeal

  • Superior weapons, organizational skills, determination

  • Hernan Cortés defeated Moctezuma and conquered Mexico in 1519

  • Francisco Pizarro controlled Inka Empire (Peru) 1531-1536

Governing the empire
Governing the Empire

  • Encomienda

    • Forced labor

    • Diesase

  • Council of the Indies

    • Viceroy

    • New Spain and Peru

  • Papal agreement

The impact of european expansion
The Impact of European Expansion

  • Native Americans ravaged by disease

  • Psychological impact

  • Conquerors sought gold and silver

  • New products sent to Europe

  • Deepened rivalries

  • Why did Europeans risk their lives?

New rivals
New Rivals

  • Portuguese

    Portugal lacked numbers, wealth to dominate trade

    Disease, shipwreck and battles took a toll

  • Europeans in Asia

    • Ferdinand Magellan conquered the Philippines for Spain

    • First English expedition to the Indies in 1591

    • East India Company sent fleet to Surat, India in 1608

    • Dutch arrived in India in 1595

    • Dutch East India Company formed in 1602

Europeans in the americas
Europeans in the Americas

  • Dutch, French, English made inroads on Spanish and Portuguese possessions in Americas

  • Portuguese

    • trade eroded in both West and the East

    • Colonial empire in Brazil was profitable

  • Dutch

    • made inroads in Brazil and Caribbean

    • Colony of New Netherland stretched from Hudson river as far north as Albany, New York

    • Dutch West India company went bankrupt

Europeans in the americas cont d
Europeans in the Americas, cont’d

  • French

    • Lesser Antilles and Louisiana

    • Canada was part of French crown and became a French province

    • Conflict in Europe took precedence over conquest in Americas

  • English

    • Seized New Netherland and renamed it New York

    • Colonial empire along Atlantic seaboard

    • Huge immigration to Americas to escape religious oppression and for economic interests

Africa in transition
Africa in Transition

  • Portuguese in east Africa

    • Gold trade

    • Mwene Matapa

  • Southern Africa

    • Settled by the Dutch, Boers, in 1652

  • West Africa

    • Mali

    • Songhai

      • King Askia Mohammed, 1493-1528

      • Broke up after his death

    • Increased European contact with West Africa

The slave trade
The Slave Trade

  • Origins of Slavery in Africa

    • Traffic in slaves existed for centuries before the Portuguese arrived in Africa

    • Primary market for slaves was Middle East

    • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans

    • Need for slaves to work in labor intensive sugar cane industries in New World

  • Growth of Slave Trade

    • 16th C: 275,000 African slaves exported

    • 17th C: a million

    • 18th C: 6 million

    • 16th-19th C: 10 million to Americas and 2 million to other areas

The middle passage
The Middle Passage

  • High death rates from voyage

  • Treated inhumanely – chained, faced diseases and stink from human waste

  • Sources of Slaves

    • Prisoners or war captives or inherited their status

    • Served as domestic servants or wageless workers

    • Purchase from local slave markets for gold, guns, textiles, utensils

    • Took Africans from coast, then went inland and launched forays against defenseless villages

Effects of slave trade
Effects of Slave Trade

  • Lives of individual victims and families

  • Depopulation of areas of continent (Angola, south of Congo, East Africa)

  • 20% sold were children

  • European justification:

    • slave trading historical

    • African intermediaries were the sellers

    • Slaves could be converted to Christianity and would replace weak American Indian workers

Political and social structures in a changing continent
Political and Social Structures in a Changing Continent

  • Importation of manufactured goods from Europe undermined foundations of local cottage industry

  • Limited European penetration of Africa

  • Altering of trading empires

  • European impact on inland areas

  • European impact on West Africa

    • Unity and benefits for West African kingdoms

    • Involvement in the slave trade and temptations of profit contributed to conflict among states

    • Splintering of the Congo region

  • East Africa

    • Movements by Arab forces to expel the Portuguese

Southeast asia in the era of the spice trade the arrival of the west
Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade: The arrival of the West

  • Dutch East India Company

    • Batavia, 1619

  • Java and Sumatra have pepper plantations

  • Cohesive monarchies in Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam resisted foreign encroachment

  • Spices did not flourish on the mainland

  • Europeans became involved in factional struggles

  • By end of the 18th century Europeans began to abandon their trading stations

State and society in pre colonial southeast asia
State and Society in the WestPre-colonial Southeast Asia

  • Religion and Kingship

    • Islam and Christianity make inroads

    • Buddhism in the lowland areas

    • Four types of political systems:

    • Buddhist kings, Javanese kings, Islamic sultans, Vietnamese Emperors

  • Economy and Society

    • Mostly agriculture during the early European period

    • Cash crops begin to replace subsistence farming

    • Southeast Asia an importer of manufactured goods

    • Exports of tin, copper, gold, fruits, ceramics

    • Higher standard of living than most of Asia

    • Social institutions

European voyages and possessions in the 16 th and 17 th centuries
European Voyages and Possessions in the 16 the Westth and 17th Centuries

The pattern of world trade from 16 th 18 th centuries
The Pattern of World Trade the Westfrom 16th-18th Centuries

Discussion questions
Discussion Questions the West

  • How did Portugal and Spain acquire their overseas empires, and how did their methods differ?

  • What were some of the consequences of the arrival of the European traders and missionaries for the peoples of Asia and the Americas?

  • What were the main features of the African slave trade, and what effects did European participation have on traditional practices?

  • What were the main characteristics of Southeast Asia societies, and how were they affected by the coming of Islam and the Europeans?