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Formation-Based Multi-Robot Coverage DeWitt T. Latimer IV, Siddhartha Srinivasa, Vincent Lee-Shue, Samuel Sonne, Aaron Hurst, Howie Choset Carnegie Mellon University Coverage Determine a path that passes the robot (or effector) over all points in a target region (volume)

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formation based multi robot coverage

Formation-Based Multi-Robot Coverage

DeWitt T. Latimer IV, Siddhartha Srinivasa, Vincent Lee-Shue, Samuel Sonne, Aaron Hurst, Howie Choset

Carnegie Mellon University

coverage
Coverage
  • Determine a path that passes the robot (or effector) over all points in a target region (volume)

Random Probabilistic Complete Optimal

problem statement
Problem Statement
  • Assumptions
    • Unknown space
    • Homogenous circular robot
    • No marking capability
    • Common coordinate frame
  • Task
    • Complete coverage of space
    • Coordinated among multiple robots
    • “Minimize” repeat coverage
    • Decentralized planning (yet coordinated)
challenges
Challenges
  • Guaranteeing completeness
    • Single robot: Hert & Lumelsky, Choset & Acar, Cao
    • Multi-robot: Butler, Hollis, and Rizzi
  • Minimize repeat coverage
  • Planning in a multi-dimensional configuration space
    • Balch and Arkin, each robot acts independently
  • Space not known a priori
    • Single robot: Hert & Lumelsky, Choset & Acar, Cao
    • Multi-robot: Butler, Hollis, and Rizzi
  • Scalability
cell decomposition approach

Reeb graph represents the topology of

  • the cellular decomposition
Cell-Decomposition Approach
  • Define Decomposition
    • Completeness
  • Sensor-based Construction
    • Incrementally construct
  • Extend to Multiple Robots
critical point sensing

Rangesensor

At a critical point x,

Critical Point Sensing

slice

At a critical point x of

where M = {x|m(x)=0}

encountering all critical points
Encountering All Critical Points
  • Conventional back and forth motions are not sufficient
  • (Cao et al.’88, Hert et al.’97, Lumelsky et al.’90)
sensor based complete coverage
Sensor-based Complete Coverage

Goal: Complete coverage of an unknown environment

Cell decomposition

Incremental construction

Time-exposure photo of a coverage experiment

critical point sensing14
Critical Point Sensing

Look for parallel vectors

during forward wall following,

but after a reverse wall follow,

lap, and then the forward

Look for anti-parallel vectors

during reverse wall following

Look for parallel vectors

during forward wall following

Look for parallel vectors

during reverse wall following

action at critical points
Action at Critical Points

Team divides into two

separate teams, each covering

a new cell

VIRTUAL

FRONTIER

(Butler)

Team finishes cell and then

looks for a new cell to cover

virtual frontier
Virtual Frontier

As an attempt to minimize repeat coverage, we use the virtual frontier believing that

another team will be coming from the “other” cell associated with the forward critical point

team rejoining work in progress
Team Rejoining (work in progress)
  • Types of encounters
    • Two teams covering in opposite slice directions
      • Both teams finish the current corridor
    • Two teams covering in same slice direction
      • Both teams finish the current corridor
    • One team covering and the other traversing
      • Since robots only traverse through known space, the covering team stops covering and joins traversing team
    • Two teams encountering each other on the border of two cells (very hard case)
  • Combine adjacency graphs
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Dave Conner
  • Ercan Acar
  • Tucker Balch
  • Matt Mason and Mike Erdmann