Formation based multi robot coverage
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Formation-Based Multi-Robot Coverage DeWitt T. Latimer IV, Siddhartha Srinivasa, Vincent Lee-Shue, Samuel Sonne, Aaron Hurst, Howie Choset Carnegie Mellon University Coverage Determine a path that passes the robot (or effector) over all points in a target region (volume)

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Formation based multi robot coverage l.jpg

Formation-Based Multi-Robot Coverage

DeWitt T. Latimer IV, Siddhartha Srinivasa, Vincent Lee-Shue, Samuel Sonne, Aaron Hurst, Howie Choset

Carnegie Mellon University


Coverage l.jpg
Coverage

  • Determine a path that passes the robot (or effector) over all points in a target region (volume)

Random Probabilistic Complete Optimal


Problem statement l.jpg
Problem Statement

  • Assumptions

    • Unknown space

    • Homogenous circular robot

    • No marking capability

    • Common coordinate frame

  • Task

    • Complete coverage of space

    • Coordinated among multiple robots

    • “Minimize” repeat coverage

    • Decentralized planning (yet coordinated)


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Challenges

  • Guaranteeing completeness

    • Single robot: Hert & Lumelsky, Choset & Acar, Cao

    • Multi-robot: Butler, Hollis, and Rizzi

  • Minimize repeat coverage

  • Planning in a multi-dimensional configuration space

    • Balch and Arkin, each robot acts independently

  • Space not known a priori

    • Single robot: Hert & Lumelsky, Choset & Acar, Cao

    • Multi-robot: Butler, Hollis, and Rizzi

  • Scalability



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Cell-Decomposition Approach

  • Define Decomposition

    • Completeness

  • Sensor-based Construction

    • Incrementally construct

  • Extend to Multiple Robots



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Rangesensor

At a critical point x,

Critical Point Sensing

slice

At a critical point x of

where M = {x|m(x)=0}


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Encountering All Critical Points

  • Conventional back and forth motions are not sufficient

  • (Cao et al.’88, Hert et al.’97, Lumelsky et al.’90)



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Sensor-based Complete Coverage turns, Completeness

Goal: Complete coverage of an unknown environment

Cell decomposition

Incremental construction

Time-exposure photo of a coverage experiment


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Characterize Critical Points turns, Completeness


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Cover Interior of Cell turns, Completeness(one corridor at a time)

Wall follow

Lap


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Critical Point Sensing turns, Completeness

Look for parallel vectors

during forward wall following,

but after a reverse wall follow,

lap, and then the forward

Look for anti-parallel vectors

during reverse wall following

Look for parallel vectors

during forward wall following

Look for parallel vectors

during reverse wall following


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Action turns, Completeness at Critical Points

Team divides into two

separate teams, each covering

a new cell

VIRTUAL

FRONTIER

(Butler)

Team finishes cell and then

looks for a new cell to cover


Virtual frontier l.jpg
Virtual Frontier turns, Completeness

As an attempt to minimize repeat coverage, we use the virtual frontier believing that

another team will be coming from the “other” cell associated with the forward critical point


Team rejoining work in progress l.jpg
Team Rejoining turns, Completeness(work in progress)

  • Types of encounters

    • Two teams covering in opposite slice directions

      • Both teams finish the current corridor

    • Two teams covering in same slice direction

      • Both teams finish the current corridor

    • One team covering and the other traversing

      • Since robots only traverse through known space, the covering team stops covering and joins traversing team

    • Two teams encountering each other on the border of two cells (very hard case)

  • Combine adjacency graphs


Example l.jpg
Example turns, Completeness


Acknowledgements l.jpg
Acknowledgements turns, Completeness

  • Dave Conner

  • Ercan Acar

  • Tucker Balch

  • Matt Mason and Mike Erdmann



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