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LISTENING TO LEARN. Chapter 7. 4 Types of Listening (Figure 7-1 – p. 214). Discriminative Distinguish among sounds and develop a sensitivity to nonverbal communication Aesthetic Listen for pleasure or enjoyment Efferent Listening to learn and acquire information Critical

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4 types of listening figure 7 1 p 214
4 Types of Listening (Figure 7-1 – p. 214)
  • Discriminative
    • Distinguish among sounds and develop a sensitivity to nonverbal communication
  • Aesthetic
    • Listen for pleasure or enjoyment
  • Efferent
    • Listening to learn and acquire information
  • Critical
    • Evaluate messages to counteract persuasion and propaganda
aesthetic listening
Aesthetic Listening
  • Interactive Read-Alouds
    • Step by Step – p. 216
  • Choosing books
    • Choose books you like and think will appeal to students
  • Rereading
    • Children benefit from repeated readings
benefits of reading aloud
Benefits of Reading Aloud
  • Stimulates interest
  • Broadens interests and taste for quality literature
  • Introduces students to sounds of written language, genres, and elements of text structure
benefits of reading aloud5
Benefits of Reading Aloud
  • Expands vocabulary, sentence patterns, and background knowledge
  • Students listen to books that are above their reading level
  • Teachers model what good readers do

Students are more likely to become lifelong readers

responding to stories
Responding to Stories
  • Five types of responses
    • Dramatizing – act out story
    • Talking back – to characters to give advice, criticize, or compliment
    • Critiquing control – suggest alternative plots, characters, or settings
    • Inserting – inserts self or friends in story
    • Taking over- take over text to manipulate it in own way
aesthetic listening7
Aesthetic Listening
  • Listening and Viewing
    • Students can
      • make comparisons between book and video version
      • examine conventions used in video productions
guidelines for using videos
Guidelines for Using Videos

1. Preview the video.

2. Plan how to use the video.

3. Set the purpose.

4. Use the pause function.

5. Re-view the video.

6. Vary the procedures used to show videos.

7. Compare the author’s and camera’s views.

8. Respond to the video.

teaching aesthetic listening
Teaching Aesthetic Listening
  • Strategies
    • Predicting – what will happen next
    • Visualizing – create image or picture in mind
    • Connecting
      • Text-to-text
      • Text-to-self
      • Text-to-world
  • Provide minilessons
assessing aesthetic listening
Assessing Aesthetic Listening
  • Judge predictions students make
  • Listen to comments as students talk about stories
  • Read entries in students’ reading logs
  • Check that students transfer use of listening strategies to reading and viewing
efferent listening
Efferent Listening
  • Techniques to improve students’ listening
    • Activating background knowledge
      • Anticipation Guide – Step by Step – p. 225
    • Setting purpose
    • Using manipulatives
      • objects, pictures, photos, word cards, etc.
    • Creating graphic organizers
    • Students take notes
reading aloud informational books
Reading Aloud Informational Books
  • Choose high-quality books
  • Actively involve children in the reading experience
  • Point out features of informational books
  • Teach efferent listening strategies
  • Use graphic organizers
  • Plan oral performances
reading aloud informational books13
Reading Aloud Informational Books
  • After reading
    • Talk about the book
    • Complete graphic organizer
    • Write in reading log
    • Create projects – posters, oral reports, found poems, informational quilts (like story quilts)
teaching efferent listening
Teaching Efferent Listening
  • Strategies
    • Organizing
      • T-chart, Venn diagram, cluster diagram, etc.
    • Summarizing
    • Getting clues from speaker
    • Monitoring
assessing efferent listening
Assessing Efferent Listening
  • Objective tests
  • Have students reflect on and talk about the listening strategies they used
critical listening
Critical Listening
  • Persuasion and Propaganda
    • Propaganda devices – Figure 7-7 – p. 235
  • Strategies
    • Ask
      • what is speaker’s/author’s purpose
      • is there intellectual, character, or emotional appeal
      • if propaganda devices are used
      • if deceptive language or inflated language are used
teaching critical listening
Teaching Critical Listening
  • Have students
    • View commercials
    • Create commercials / advertisements - Step by Step – p. 236
    • Collect, display, and examine advertisements
    • Listen to read-alouds of trade books
    • Participate in minilessons
  • Assessing Critical Listening
listening process step 1 receiving
Listening Process Step 1: Receiving
  • The listener receives the aural stimuli, or aural & visual stimuli presented by the speaker.
listening process step 2 attending
Listening Process Step 2: Attending
  • Listener focuses on selected stimuli while ignoring distracting stimuli.
  • “Paying attention” component
  • Not necessarily related to physical behaviors
listening process step 3 assigning meaning
Listening Process Step 3: Assigning Meaning
  • Listener understands the speaker’s message.
  • Uses assimilation & accommodation to fit the message into their existing cognitive structures or to create new structures.
comprehensive listening strategies forming pictures or mental images imagery visualizing strategy
Comprehensive Listening Strategies:Forming pictures or mental images/ Imagery Visualizing strategy
  • Students may form mental images or pictures while listening to messages which include visual descriptions and/or details.
comprehensive listening strategies monitoring
Comprehensive Listening Strategies: Monitoring
  • Students may ask themselves questions to monitor their listening:
    • "Why am I listening?"
    • "What does this mean (in my own words or thoughts)?"
    • "Does this information make sense?"
    • "How can I use this information?“
    • "What will I have to do with this information?”
comprehensive listening strategies asking questions
Comprehensive Listening Strategies: Asking Questions
  • Students may ask the speaker questions to clarify meaning, deepen their understanding, and/or reduce/eliminate confusion.
comprehensive listening strategies discovering the plan
Comprehensive Listening Strategies: Discovering the Plan
  • Ability to recognize the organizational plan of the speaker, & to use the plan to understand & remember the message.
  • Teach each organizational pattern separately before requiring students both to identify the correct pattern & to apply the pattern to their listening.
  • Incorporating graphic organizers for each of the organizational patterns allows an auditory message to become more visual.
comprehensive listening strategies discovering the plan25
Comprehensive Listening Strategies: Discovering the Plan
  • Note-taking: Students may apply knowledge of organizational plans & use graphic organizers to assist with note-taking.
  • Organizational Patterns:
    • Categorization
    • Description
    • Sequence
    • Comparison & contrast
    • Cause & effect
    • Problem & solution
children s literature related to listening
Children's Literature Related to Listening
  • Balian, L. (1972). The aminal. New York: Abingdon Press.
  • Keats, E.J. (1962). The snowy day. New York: Viking.
  • Lester, H. (1995). Listen Buddy. New York: Trumpet.
  • Pfeffer, W. (1999). Sounds all around. New York: Scholastic.

Root, VSU

children s literature related to listening cont
Children's Literature Related to Listening (cont.)
  • Showers, P. (1990). Ears are for hearing. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Junior Books.
  • Showers, P. (1961). The listening walk. New York: HarperCollins.
  • Stanley, D. (1983). The conversation club. New York: Macmillan.
  • Wells, R. (1973). Noisy Nora. New York: Dial Press.

Root, VSU