Excel Basics

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# Excel Basics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Excel Basics Fundamentals, Formula Techniques, and Tricks of the Trade Fundamentals The basics of spreadsheet models Fundamentals 1] Never enter the same information more than once. =B4 Fundamentals

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## Excel Basics

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### Excel Basics

Fundamentals,

Formula Techniques, and

### Fundamentals

Fundamentals

1] Never enter the same information more than once.

=B4

Fundamentals

2] Code inputs blue. When a blue input variable is changed ALL DEPENDENT values change accordingly.

=B4

=B4 ?

=E4 ?

Fundamentals

3] Name constants.

=CPN

Go to B13

Assign names in the name box (under the toolbar). This replaces the name B13 with PRI

Use [Insert] [Names…] [Define] to see and manage names used in the spreadsheet

In 2007 use [Formulas] [NameManager]

Fundamentals

3] Name constants.

Principal

=CPN

=RDT

=PRI

=SDT

Fundamentals

3] Name constants and arrays

• Highlight
• Enter the name
• Shift+Ctrl+Enter

=Codes

Fundamentals

4] Format for clarity and ease of use.

vs

\$A\$1

A1

B1

\$A1

\$A1

A\$1

B\$1

\$A\$1

\$A\$1

A2

\$A2

A\$1

Fundamentals

5] Always line up repetitive formulas so they can be dragged across rows and down columns.

*Use [F4] to toggle the lock code

Fundamentals

6] Train yourself to use shortcuts

• Alt+ codes
• TRY Alt + I N D

### In-Session Exercise

Bond Calculator

Dates

Nov 8 is a date

Ctrl+Shift+1 and it changes to 39,758.00

Formats

In B13

Ctrl+Shift+1 and it changes to 98.75

Ctrl+Shift+2 and it changes to 6:00PM

(.75 through the day)

Ctrl+Shift+3 and it changes to 7-Apr-00(Apr 7, 1900)

Ctrl+Shift+4 and it changes to \$98.75

Ctrl+Shift+5 and it changes to 9875%

Ctrl+Shift+6 and it changes to 9.88E+01

Bond Calculator
• Compute Base Price
• Note that when you use = and point to the Principal Excel uses the Name Principal rather than B3
• when you use = and point to Price Excel uses the Name PRI rather than B13

### Functions

Using Excel Functions

Functions
• There are hundreds of built-in functions
• Find them by clicking on fx
• Most of the ones we use are under Financial
Function: COUPDAYSBS

Use names

See each step

Description of function

Use \$A\$7 which will default to 0

Bond Calculator

Note that everything is calculatedand coded black

Functions
• On any function click on the [fx] to open the applet.

### Data Validation

Drop Down Lists

Data Validation

B7

Set to accept inputs from B19:B21only

Drop Down Lists in Excel
• From B7 use Data/ Validation
• Choose List and specify \$B\$19:\$B\$21

List

Dropdown

\$B\$19:\$B\$21

Drop Down Lists

The drop down forces the user to choose from a list of inputs

### Lookup

Finding specific information

Lookup

Basis for COUP functions

• In A7=VLOOKUP(B7,Codes,2,FALSE)

Exact match only

Find the value in B7 in the 1st column of…

The array we named Codes

Get the corresponding value in column 2

=Codes

Lookup
• Choose a different Bond type and watch the code change.
• vLookup
• Looks up in the first column of an array and matches the row
• hLookup
• Looks up in the first row of an array and matches the column

### If

Excel conditions

=IF(Condition, True, False)

=IF(A7=1,"Treasury","Not a Treasury")

=IF(TEXT(RDT,"dd")="15",

"matures on the 15th",

"doesn't mature on the 15th")

Day part of SDT

=IF(Condition, True, False)

=IF(A7=1,

IF(TEXT(B5,"dd")="15",

"",

"Treasuries mature on the 15th"),

"")

You can embed up to 7 if statements in one cell

### Tables

Sensitivity Analysis

Data Tables
• Change one input in a model and calculate what various outputs would be
• Change two inputs in a model and calculate what one output would be
{=Table()}

=E16

Cell where the Nominal Yield is calculated

Change the price quote (from 60 to 135)

=E17

Cell where income Yield is calculated

=E18

Cell where YTM is calculated

{=Table()}
• Highlight the table area
• The first column is the list of prices
• The top row is the list of outputs

\$B\$13

{=Table()}

2.Use [Data][Table]

3.Indicate that the first column in the area is to replace cell B13

4.[OK]

{=Table()}

Test the table array by changing the input n and comparing the results with the table

### Graphs

When a picture is worth a thousand words

Graphs
• What are you trying to communicate?
• How do you best communicate it?
Combined Chart

Monarch

Price of a quarter of wheat

Wage of a good mechanic

Florence Nightingale

Deaths from preventable disease

Deaths from wounds

Deaths from all other causes

Graphs
• Chart as an xy scatter chart
• exchange the x and y axes
• Yield shouldbe the x axis
• Price shouldbe the y axis
• Use right click/source data
Chart Area

The Chart Area is the frame in which the chart is held. Set the chart font to the same as the spreadsheet and de-click autoscale

Plot Area

The Plot Area is the chart space. Highlight the grey and delete; highlight the gridlines and delete or reformat to make them less obnoxious.Expand the Plot Area to enlarge the graph within the frame

Axes

Edit Chart Options to add Titles

Format Axes

Format Data Series

Format Data point to add label

Color nominal yield white to hide it

Format Data Series

Change to Income Alt+Enter Yield

The label Changes as well

### Conditional Formatting

Font color, highlights, etc

Prices to increment by 10

Format/ Conditional Formatting

Set negative yields to red

Now set the Coupon to 4%

Conditional Formatting