17th Conference IAPS-2002. Environmental Problems through the Spanish Press: Methodological issues and preliminary results. B . Cortés*, M ª Amérigo*, J .I. Aragonés# y V . Sevillano# * Dpto . Psicología. Universidad de Castilla- La Mancha
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B.Cortés*, MªAmérigo*, J.I.Aragonés# y V.Sevillano#
* Dpto. Psicología. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha
# Fac. Psicología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid
New direction of this
Psychology has an indispensable role in understanding environmental problems and finding solutions...
But causes and solutions are varied.
They do not lie only in psychological variables;
they also lie in external forces
operating on classes of individuals
or on social systems. (Stern, 2000)Theoretical Background
Vitally important for understanding environmental beliefs and values are socialization and social learning.(Zelezny, Chua y Aldrich, 2000)
“Consciousness raising” is stimulated and reinforced by societal institutions; it is a necessary ingredient in social learning. (Milbrath, 1986)
concern presume that value orientations
underlie environmental attitudes and
behaviour. (Stern, Dietz y Kalof, 1993; Thompson y
Mass media are powerful socialization and values are socialization and
agents and create a symbolic universe in which transmitters and recipients are inmersed as members of a society in a concrete context.
Primary research questions:
We presume that: and values are socialization and
Three national newspapers were selected:
Different ideological orientation
Same period of time
Calendar and values are socialization and
53 dates for each journal
Total = 159 issues
“Substantive issues” included as environmental problems in relevant international research.
News items where the headlines, subheadings, inserts or highlighted texts (bold face, italics, or larger typographical lettering) correspond to any of the predefined subjects.
Editorials, letters to the editor, and articles of opinion where a diagonal reading reveals any of these subjects.
Further Sampling Decisions and values are socialization and
Based on consideration of the evolution of environmental conceptualization: going from a traditional definition in natural terms to one where there is an interdependence between the social, cultural, and economic dimensions (related to the development model).
Check-sampling by independent researchers: aids definitional clarity and is a reliability check.
As soon as the field
work begins to
IF there was EXPLICIT
Codes and coding and values are socialization and
Database design: date-newspaper-page-headline-keyword indicating thematic content (possible bias)
Total = 1765 News ítems
Elimination of differences due to typographical errors
Elimination of keywords with less than 5 mentions
Thematic grouping; e.g.
Natural catastrophes natural disasters
Woodlands, protected forests & virgin forests
1536 of the total nº of articles (87%)Early Steps in Analysis
Fr = 48%
= more than 50
genetic research-land speculation and values are socialization and
AIDS-conservation of nature-tobacco
conservation of nature- and values are socialization and
1999Comparativelexicalanalysis: 1999 & 2001
foot & mouth
depletion of species
depletion of species
pardoning of debt
pardoning of debt
Storm-toxic emissions- Welfare State
Ethical orientation underlying environmental problems
+ Heuristic value in the analysis of environmental problems as socially constructed
headlines from the three newspapers
Natural and values are socialization and Resources :
“As far as the environment is concerned, the demonstrators hold the World Trade Organization responsible for the fact that the poor countries have to continue pillaging their natural resources to survive…”
“Demonstrators sharpen their irony”. Messages of protest on the banners :
“The turtles say no to the WTO”
“The butterflies say no to the WTO”
“The dolphins say no to the WTO”…
“The ecological family is opposed to the WTO”…
EL PAÍS 2-12-99
Editorial: People and Commerce.