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Difference between English and Chinese. General introduction Words Sentences Discourse Rhetorical devices. General introduction ( 1 ). Different language families : English : Indo-European language family or Indo-Germanic system Chinese : Sino-Tibetan language family

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Difference between English and Chinese


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difference between english and chinese
Difference between English and Chinese
  • General introduction
  • Words
  • Sentences
  • Discourse
  • Rhetorical devices
general introduction 1
General introduction(1)
  • Different language families:
  • English:Indo-European language family or Indo-Germanic system
  • Chinese:Sino-Tibetan language family
  • English:alphabetic character
  • Chinese:ideographic character
general introduction 2
General introduction(2)
  • Different nature of language:
  • Chinese:analytic language
  • English:comprehensive language
general introduction 24
General introduction(2)
  • Analytic language: the relationship of words is expressed not by the form of word itself-----but by prepositions and word order and so on.
  • Comprehensive language: the meaning of the language is expressed by the change of the form of the word itself such as case, number, tense and so on.
general introduction 3
General introduction(3)
  • Difference of sentence structure:
  • English sentences:well-knit, close and compact
  • Chinese sentences:concise and explicit
  • In English, nouns, especially the abstract nouns and prepositions are widely used, just like a series of Grapes. In Chinese verbs are widely used, just like a Bamboo.
slide6
Word
  • Verbs
  • Nouns
  • Pronouns
  • Adjetives and adverbs
  • Articles
  • Conjunctions
  • Prepositions
verbs 1
Verbs (1)
  • It rains everyday recently.
  • It rained yesterday.
  • It is going to rain.
  • It is raining hard outside.
verbs 2
Verbs (2)
  • The window was broken.
  • The cup was broken.
  • This pot is made of stainless steel.
  • Measures have been taken
  • Enough attention has been paid to that problem.
verbs 3
Verbs (3)
  • I want to go out for a walk.
  • Being a teacher, he should love his students.
  • Given more money and time, he would succeed.
nouns 1
Nouns (1)
  • Custom习惯 customs海关,关税
  • Economy 节约economics节约措施
  • Damage损坏 damages赔偿费
  • Ground 场地grounds理由
  • Export 出口exports出口货物
nouns 2
Nouns (2)
  • Unemployment 失业现象
  • tension紧张局势
  • Arrogance 骄傲情绪
  • shortage短缺情况
nouns 3
Nouns (3)
  • A bird’s-eye view of London鸟瞰伦敦
  • St. Peter’s圣彼得教堂
  • The barber’s理发店
nouns 4
Nouns (4)
  • Efforts should be made to overcome the disadvantages.
  • 应努力克服种种不利因素。
  • Steps have been taken, but without success.
  • 已经采取了一些步骤,但毫无结果。
nouns 5
Nouns (5)
  • They fell in love at first sight.
  • The passage of the bill by houses of Congress was hopeful.
  • 两院很有可能通过该议案。
pronouns 1
Pronouns (1)
  • He put his hands into his pocket.
  • They had their lunch at half past twelve today.
pronouns 2
Pronouns (2)
  • Anna, who was here a moment ago, left this note.
  • 安娜刚才来过,是她留下的这张条子。
  • We used a plane of which almost every part carried some indication of national identity.
  • 我们驾驶的飞机几乎每一个零件都有国家的标志。
  • God help those who help themselves.
  • 自助者天助之。
adj adv
Adj. & adv.
  • This magazine is more interesting.
  • This book is the best one.
  • He is old enough to go to school.
  • She has enough time to do it.
articles
Articles
  • A cup of tea
  • An English book
  • He is a student in our class.
  • 他是我们班的学生。
  • The end does not justify the means.
  • 即使目的正当,也不能不择手段。
  • I like the red one.
  • 我喜欢那个红的。
conjunctions
Conjunctions
  • She was so excited that tears came to her eyes.
  • 她激动得热泪盈眶。
  • 你不走我也不走。
  • If you don’t leave, I won’t leave either.
prepositions 1
Prepositions (1)
  • He goes to school at seven o’clock every morning.
  • Across the street, he began to run very fast.
prepositions 2
Prepositions (2)
  • Look after 照顾
  • Look for 寻找
  • Look at 看
  • Take off 起飞,脱去
  • Take sth. for granted 想当然
  • Take …for… 误以为
  • Take out 拿出
  • Take in 吸入,接收
sentence
Sentence
  • 英语句子重形合(hypotaxis);汉语句子重意合(parataxis)。所谓“形合”就是主要靠语言本身语法手段;所谓“意合”主要靠句子内部逻辑联系。英文句子结构紧凑严密。中文句子结构简练明快。总之,英语句子中,主干结构突出,即主谓机制突出。名词尤其是抽象名词和介词用得多。在表达复杂思想时,往往开门见山,然后借助英语特有词汇关系代词(relative pronoun),进行空间搭架,把各个子句(clause)有机地结合起来,构成一串葡萄似的句子。主干可能很短,上面却结着累累果实。
examples 1
Examples (1)
  • The isolation of the rural world, because of distance and the lack of transport facilities, is compounded by the paucity of the information media.
  • 由于距离远,又缺乏交通工具,使农村社会与外界隔绝,而这种隔绝,又由于通讯工具不足而变得更加严重。
examples 124
Examples (1)
  • 由于距离远,又缺乏交通工具,使农村社会与外界隔绝,而这种隔绝,又由于通讯工具不足而变得更加严重。
  • Because there is a great distance and there are not enough transport facilities, the rural world is isolated. This isolation has become more serious because there are not enough information media.
examples 2
Examples (2)
  • It is a curious fact, of which I can think of no satisfactory explanation, that enthusiasm for country life and love of natural scenery are strongest and most widely diffused precisely in those European countries which have the worst climate and where the search for the picturesque involves the greatest discomfort.
examples 226
Examples (2)
  • 译文1:这是件我不能想出解释的事,就是正好那些天气最坏和寻找风景如画的地方最带有困难的欧洲国家是对乡村生活具有的热情和对自然景色具有的爱心最强烈和最普遍的。
  • 译文2:欧洲有些国家,天气坏透,那里的人要辛苦一番,才能找到景色如画的地方。奇怪,他们恰好最喜欢过乡村生活,也最爱欣赏天然风景,而且这个情形也极普遍。这就是实情,我怎么也提不出叫人满意的解释来。
examples 227
Examples (2)
  • Europe has some countries, climate is worst, people there must have greatest discomfort, then can search for the picturesque, curious, they precisely have the greatest enthusiasm for country life, and love of natural scenery, and this is most widely diffused, this is a fact, but I can never think of any satisfactory explanation.
text discourse
Text / Discourse
  • Definition
  • The difference between English text and Chinese text
  • examples
definition 1
Definition (1)
  • 篇章是指由连贯的句子或语段所构成的、或长或短的语义整体,例如一篇散文、一项合同、一页说明书、一首诗歌、一个剧本、一次谈话、一则寓言、一封书信、一部小说或专著,或其中意义比较完整的片段。
definition 2
Definition (2)
  • 篇章不是一连串孤立的句子的简单组合,而是一个语义上的整体,即表达整体意义。
  • 语言形式上,篇内各句、段之间存在着粘连性(cohesion),如连接、替代、省略、照应;
  • 语义逻辑上,全篇通常有首有尾,各句段所反映的概念或命题具有连续性。每个句子都起着一定的承前启后的作用,句与句、段与段的排列一般都符合逻辑顺序。
  • 篇章翻译:语境
difference in text 1
Difference in text (1)
  • English : subject-prominent
  • Chinese : topic-prominent
  • Examples
examples 132
Examples (1)
  • ……1到了铁公祠前,2朝南一望,只见对面千佛山上,梵宇僧楼,与那苍松翠柏,3高4下相间,红的火红,白的雪白,青的靛青,绿的碧绿,更有那一株半株的丹枫夹在里面,5仿佛宋人赵千里的一幅大画,作了一架数十里长的屏风。
  • ------------------------(刘鹗:《老残游记》,齐鲁书社,1985,14页)
examples 133
Examples (1)
  • When he1 reached the temple, he2looked southwards and saw on the other side of the lake the Mount of a Thousand Buddha. There were temples and monasteries, some3 high and some4 low, scattered among the greyed pines and green cypresses: the red were as red as fire, the white as white as snow, the blue as blue as indigo and the green as green as emerald, while here and there were a few red maples. It5 looked like a big painting by Zhao Qianli, the Song-dynasty painter, only made into a screen a dozen miles long.
  • ——(from The Travels of Lao Can, tr. By Yang Hsienyi and Gladys Yang, Panda Books, 1983, p24-25)
examples 234
Examples (2)
  • They tell us, Sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so formidable and adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Willit1 be the next week, or the next year? Will it2 be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot? Sir, we are not weak if we3 make a proper use of those means which the God of nature hath placed in our power.
examples 235
Examples (2)
  • 先生,他们说我们力量小,不是这强敌的对手。但是什么时候我们才会强大起来?1下星期还是明年?2是不是要等我们完全被解除武装、家家户户都驻扎了英国士兵的时候?我们迟疑不决、无所作为就能积聚力量吗?我们高枕而卧、苟安侥幸,等到敌人使我们束手就擒时,我们就能找到有效的御敌办法?先生,如果3能恰当地利用万物之主赋予我们的力量,我们并不弱小。
difference in text 2
Difference in text (2)
  • 英语句子重形合(hypotaxis): and, but, if , as, therefore, when, however, moreover or in addition, what’s more important;
  • 汉语句子重意合(parataxis)。
  • examples
examples 137
Examples (1)
  • A second aspect of technology transfer concentrate on US high technology exports. China has correctly complained in the past that the US was unnecessarily restrictive in limiting technology sales to China. Recently some liberalization has taken place and1 major increases in technology transfers have taken place as the result. However2, some items continue to be subject to restrictions and unnecessary delay, in part because3 the US Government submits many items to COCOM for approval. There is significant room for improvement with the US bureaucracy and COCOM.
examples 138
Examples (1)
  • 技术转让的第二个方面集中在美国的高技术出口方面。过去中国曾经抱怨说,美国不必要限制对中国出售技术,这种抱怨是情有可原的。由于1近来限制有所放宽,技术转让大大增加,但是2,还有些项目继续限制出口或受到不必要的延误,其中部分原因是3;美国政府要把许多项目提交巴黎统筹委员会批准。美国的官僚主义和巴黎统筹委员会的做法都大有改进的余地。
examples 239
Examples (2)
  • 春眠不觉晓,
  • 处处闻啼鸟。
  • 夜来风雨声,
  • 花落知多少。
  • ——(孟浩然:《春晓》)
examples 240
Examples (2)
  • I awake light----hearted this morning of spring,
  • Everywhere round me the singing of birds,
  • But now I remember the night, the storm,
  • And I wonder how many blossoms were broken.
  • ------(from The Jade Mountain, tr. By Witter Bynner and Kiang Kang-hu, New York, Knopf, 1929)
rhetorical devices 1
Rhetorical devices (1)
  • 胆小如鼠
  • As timid as a hare
  • The apple of one’s eye
  • 掌上明珠
rhetorical devices 2
Rhetorical devices (2)
  • Jim has become the sun in her heart. (暗喻)
  • 吉姆成了她心目中的太阳。
  • The brains don’t lie in the beard. (借代)
  • 有志不在年高。
  • We sang, we laugh, we dance. (排比)
  • 我们放声歌唱,我们开怀大笑,我们翩翩起舞。
rhetorical devices 3
Rhetorical devices (3)
  • 樱花红陌上,柳叶绿池边。(对偶)
  • The pathways red with cherry blossoms,
  • The lakeside green with willow leaves.
  • 我从乡下跑到城里,一转眼已经六年了。(夸张)
  • Six years have passed by in a twinkle since I came to the city from the countryside.
rhetorical devices 4
Rhetorical devices (4)
  • 有个农村叫张家庄,张家庄有个张木匠。张木匠有个好老婆,外号叫“小飞娥”。小飞娥生了个女儿叫艾艾。(顶真)
  • There was a village called Zhangjia Village, where lived Carpenter Zhang, who had a good wife, nicknamed Little Moth, who gave birth to a girl called Ai’ai.
  • 东边日出西边雨,道是无晴却有晴。(双关)
  • The west is veiled in rain, the east basks in sunshine,
  • My beloved is as deep in love as the day is fine.
exercise
Exercise
  • All of us have read thrilling stories in which the hero had only a limited and specified time to live. Sometimes it was as long as a year; sometimes as short as twenty-four hours. But always we were interested in discovering just how the doomed man chose to spend his last days or his last hours. I speak, of course, of free men who have a choice, not condemned criminals whose sphere of activities is strictly delimited.
exercise46
Exercise
  • 大家都读过扣人心弦的故事,故事中的主人公只能够活一段屈指可数的日子了。这段时间可能长达一年,可能短如24小时。我们常被这样的故事所吸引,特别想了解那个大限在即的人将如何度过他生命的最后时光。当然,我这里所说的是那些能够作出选择的自由人,而不是被判刑的囚犯。