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    1. Descent with Modification A Darwinian View of Life Chapter 22 A.P. Biology Liberty Senior High School Rick L. Knowles

    3. Theodosius Dobzhansky Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. The American Biology Teacher (1973)

    4. Overview: Darwin Introduces a Revolutionary Theory A new era of biology began on November 24, 1859 The day Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

    5. Concept 22.1: The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species In order to understand why Darwins ideas were revolutionary We need to examine his views in the context of other Western ideas about Earth and its life

    6. The historical context of Darwins life and ideas

    7. The Scale of Nature and Classification of Species The Greek philosopher Aristotle Viewed species as fixed and unchanging The Old Testament of the Bible Holds that species were individually designed by God and therefore perfect Intelligent Design

    8. Carolus Linnaeus Interpreted organismal adaptations as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a specific purpose Was a founder of taxonomy, classifying lifes diversity for the greater glory of God Viewed species similarities not as evolutionary relationship, but as patterns of creation.

    9. Fossils, Cuvier, and Catastrophism The study of fossils Helped to lay the groundwork for Darwins ideas Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past Usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata

    10. Paleontology, the study of fossils Was largely developed by French scientist Georges Cuvier Observed that upper strata were younger and lower strata were older Noticed that new species would appear in an older strata and then disappear in a newer strata. Cuvier opposed the idea of gradual evolutionary change And instead advocated catastrophism, speculating that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe (flood or drought).

    11. Theories of Gradualism Gradualism Is the idea that profound change can take place through the cumulative effect of slow but continuous processes. 1795, James Hutton proposed that Earths geologic features could be explained by gradual mechanisms currently operating (ex. valleys are created by rivers)

    12. Geologists Hutton and Charles Lyell Perceived that changes in Earths surface can result from slow continuous actions still operating today Lyell proposed uniformitarianism same geologic processes are operating today as in the past and at the same rate. Exerted a strong influence on Darwins thinking

    13. One of the First Ideas of Evolution Lamarck compared species today with the fossil record. 1809, hypothesized that species evolve through use and disuse and the inheritance of acquired traits. Organisms have an innate drive to become more complex. But the mechanisms he proposed are unsupported by evidence

    15. Darwin and the HMS Beagle During his travels Darwin observed and collected many specimens of South American plants and animals Darwin observed various adaptations of plants and animals That inhabited many diverse environments

    17. Name Two (2) Observations that Darwin Made Leading to His Theory. Name One (1) Observation Weve Since Made About the Natural World.

    18. Darwins Observations about Evolution 1. Fossil Record: noticed that the fossils of South America resembled living species of that continent. Example: Glyptodon related to modern armadillo?

    19. Glyptodon

    20. Darwins Observations of Evolution 2. Biogeography plants and animals in temperate regions of South America resemble tropical species in South America than the temperate species in Europe. The distribution of life across similar climates is not always the same; (climate alone is not causing diversity). Closely related species are found in same geographic region.

    21. Different geographic regions, different mammalian brands Have evolved independently from different ancestors

    22. Charles Darwin, 1835, Galapagos

    23. Whats so special about a bunch of islands? National Geographic Series Galapagos, Tape #254

    25. Darwins Finches

    26. The Galapagos Archipelago

    27. Bartoloma Island

    28. Isabela Island

    29. Darwin proposed that natural selection Could enable an ancestral species to split into two or more descendant species, resulting in a tree of life

    31. Seen one tortoise, youve seen them all?

    32. Galapagos Tortoise Distribution

    33. Galapagos Tortoise-Env. Club 2008, Omaha Zoo

    34. Darwins Focus on Adaptation Years later, Darwin reassessed all that he had observed during the voyage of the Beagle He began to perceive adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species as closely related processes

    35. Alfred Russel Wallace, 1823-1913

    39. Other Observations about Evolution 3. Artificial Selection - humans have modified other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits

    40. The Origin of Species articulated two main points Descent with modification Natural selection

    41. Natural Selection Darwin proposed natural selection As the mechanism for evolutionary adaptation of populations to their environments

    42. Natural selection is the evolutionary process that occurs When a populations heritable variations are exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individuals over others.

    43. The Origin of Species Darwin developed two main ideas Evolution explains lifes unity and diversity Natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution The phrase descent with modification Summarized Darwins perception of the unity of life States that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past

    44. Elephant Phylogeny

    45. Summary of Natural Selection Natural selection is differential success in reproduction That results from the interaction between individuals that vary in heritable traits and their environment If an environment changes over time Natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions

    46. Over time natural selection can produce an increase In the adaptation of organisms to their environment

    47. Concept 22.3: Darwins theory explains a wide range of observations Darwins theory of evolution Continues to be tested by how effectively it can account for additional observations and experimental outcomes Natural Selection in Action Evolution continues today! Guppies HIV Humans

    48. Differential Predation in Guppy Populations Researchers have observed natural selection Leading to adaptive evolution in guppy populations

    50. The Evolution of Drug-Resistant HIV In humans, the use of drugs Selects for pathogens that through chance mutations are resistant to the drugs effects Natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution

    51. Anatomy of HIV

    52. Inside HIV

    53. Researchers have developed numerous drugs to combat HIV But using these medications selects for viruses resistant to the drugs

    54. New Evidence that Darwin Did Not Have How old did most 19th Century people believe the Earth was? About 6,000 years old (Cuviers young Earth) 1. Age of the Earth- 4.5 billion year old. Better dating techniques than in Darwins time; more complete fossil record.

    55. 2. Transitional Species Have intermediate characteristics of two groups of animals may represent a link in evolution (missing link?). Changes in structures may be small difficult to identify in fossils. Species replaced quickly not common in fossil record.

    56. Archaeopteryx (150 million years ago)

    57. Archaeopteryx

    58. Archaeopteryx at the KU Natural History Museum

    59. Evolution Happens in Small Steps Show me the frogs! Discover- Weird Nature: Marvelous Motion, tape #55

    60. Other Transitional Examples?

    61. A Walking Whale?

    62. Transitional Skulls

    63. Rodhocetus Foot

    64. Transitional Diatoms in Yellowstone

    65. 3. Vestigial Structures Existing structures that have no apparent function, but resemble structures of presumed ancestors. Examples: human appendix; muscle set in humans for moving ears;

    66. The Pelvis of a Whale

    67. Evidence of Transitional Species Today! Vestigial Structure- blue whales with femurs? Life of Mammals-Return to the Water video, tape #110

    68. Vestigial Organs in Humans? Structures of little or no use but may represent historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors.

    69. Vermiform Appendix

    70. Goosebumps?

    71. Vomeronasal or Jacobsons Organ

    72. JunkDNA; L-gulonolactone oxidase gene

    73. Extra Ear Muscles auriculares muscles

    74. Plantaris Muscle 9% dont have it

    75. Wisdom Teeth mandible becoming smaller

    76. Third Eyelid Plica semilunaris

    77. Darwins (Auricular) Tubercle only 10.4% have it.

    78. Coccyx

    79. Four-Finned Dolphin; Oct, 2006

    80. Four-Finned Dolphin; Oct, 2006

    81. Show me more vestigial structures! Do snakes have feet? The story of boas and pythons.

    82. 4. Anatomical Homologies Homologous structures between organisms Are anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme that was present in a common ancestor

    83. Homology Homologous Structures structures in different species that are similar because of commons ancestry.

    84. Sophie and a Mosasaur

    85. Analogous Structures similarity in structures due to adaptations from similar evolutionary pressures (convergent evolution) and not a common ancestor. Analogy

    86. The products of natural selection Are often exquisite adaptations of organisms to the special circumstances of their way of life and their environment

    87. 5. Comparative Embryology Reveals additional anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms

    88. Show me an example of homologous structures! Compare a human hand and bat wing. Life of Mammals- Life in the Trees video, tape #110

    89. 6. Molecular Homologies Biologists observe homologies among organisms at the molecular level Genes and proteins that are shared among organisms inherited from a common ancestor.

    90. Darwins Theory of Evolution Natural selection is the driving force of changes within species populations.

    91. Can we see evolution? Weiner, J. 1994. The Beak of the Finch. Knopf, New York. The video What Darwin Never Saw

    92. I want to see evolution in action! Scientific American Frontiers-Voyage to the Galapagos, 2000, VT 551.4 SCI