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Dementia with Lewy Bodies. American Academy of Neurology John Hart, Jr., M.D. Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

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dementia with lewy bodies

Dementia with Lewy Bodies

American Academy of Neurology

John Hart, Jr., M.D.

dementia with lewy bodies2
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  • Definition: clinically defined by the presence of dementia, prominent hallucinations and delusions (yet sensitive to antipsychotic medications), fluctuations in alertness, and gait/balance disorder (McKeith et al., Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)
  • Accounts for up to 20-30% of degenerative dementias (Hansen et al., Neurology 1990;40:1-8)
    • Second in occurrence behind AD
dementia with lewy bodies3
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  • Autopsy shows 15-36% of demented cases presenting for autopsy have Lewy Bodies (LB) in neocortex and brainstem
    • Most also AD changes
    • Typically include pure dementia cases with cortical Lewy Bodies and those those with AD+LB under Dementia with Lewy Bodies
demographics
Demographics
  • Age of onset comparable to AD
  • Males more susceptible (1.5:1) and have worse prognosis
  • Duration may be rapid (1-5 years) or typical to AD in other cases
dementia with lewy bodies6
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  • Established clinical consensus criteria (McKeith et al., Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)
  • Dementia (DSM-IV) where prominent or persistent memory impairments may not necessarily occur in the early stages but occurs with progression. Attention, frontal-subcortical, and visuospatial skills may be prominent
dementia with lewy bodies7
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  • Has two of the following core features for probable and one for possible DLB
    • Fluctuating cognition with pronounced variations in attention and alertness
      • Occurs in 80-90% of DLB, only 20% of AD
    • Recurrent visual hallucinations that are typically well formed and detailed
    • Spontaneous motor features of parkinsonism
dementia with lewy bodies8
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  • Features supportive of the diagnosis are:
    • Repeated falls
    • Syncope
    • Transient loss of consciousness
    • Neuroleptic sensitivity
    • Systematized delusions
    • Hallucinations in other modalities
dementia with lewy bodies9
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  • Neuropsychology:
    • Impaired visuoconstructional skills and attention with relative sparing of memory
  • Imaging:
    • MRI shows DLB patients with hippocampal volume between those of normal controls and AD patients (Hashimoto et al., Neurology 1998;51:357-362)
    • More hypoperfusion in the occipital lobes than AD (Knopman et al., Neurology 2001;56:1143-1153)
pathology
Pathology
  • Lewy bodies in the cortex and brainstem
    • Subcortical nuclei, limbic cortex, neocortex (temporal > frontal = parietal)
  • May have beta amyloid deposition and plaques like AD, but few neurofibrillary tangles
dementia with lewy bodies12
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  • Term is conventionally used in clinical and pathological diagnoses
  • No other specific code captures the clinical or pathological spectrum
  • General dementia or AD diagnosis (290 or 331) ignores established criteria, allows no tracking of DLB, and is the 2nd largest etiology of neurodegenerative dementias
dementia with lewy bodies13
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  • Differs from the other codes including AD, Parkinson’s disease and dementia
  • AD  early hallucinations, fluctuation in alertness, sensitivity to neuroleptics are important to differentiate
  • Parkinson’s disease and dementia  the dementia with PD is subcortical with different symptoms