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Common Fracture Eponyms Christopher L. Graham, MS4, Oregon Health & Science University Objectives Radiographic recognition of common fracture patterns Overview of fracture mechanism and associated radiographic findings Brief history/background information on source of fracture eponym

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common fracture eponyms
Common Fracture Eponyms

Christopher L. Graham, MS4, Oregon Health & Science University

objectives
Objectives
  • Radiographic recognition of common fracture patterns
  • Overview of fracture mechanism and associated radiographic findings
  • Brief history/background information on source of fracture eponym
colles fracture
CollesFracture
  • Generally results from fall on outstretched hand (FOOSH mechanism)
  • Transverse fracture of distal radius with dorsal displacement and angulation of distal fragment
  • 50-60% of cases have associated ulnar styloid fracture
  • Results in “Dinner Fork” deformity
colles fracture background
Colles Fracture - Background
  • Named after Abraham Colles (1773-1843), an Irish surgeon and anatomist
  • Fracture accurately described by Colles in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal in 1814
smith s fracture
Smith’s Fracture
  • Result of fall on flexed hand or backward fall on palm of outstretched hand
  • Transverse fracture of distal radius with volar displacement and angulation of distal fragment
  • AKA reversed Colles fracture
  • Results in “Garden Spade” deformity
smith s fracture background
Smith’s Fracture - Background
  • Named after Robert William Smith (1807-1873), an Irish surgeon
  • In 1847, fracture first described by Smith in "A Treatise on Fractures in the Vicinity of Joints, and on Certain Forms of Accidents and Congenital Dislocations."
monteggia s fracture
Monteggia’s Fracture
  • Most commonly results from fall on outstretched hand with forced pronation, or direct trauma to forearm
  • Fracture of proximal or middle third of ulna with dislocation of radial head (anterior or posterior)
  • Comprises 1-2% of all forearm fractures
monteggia s fracture background
Monteggia’s Fracture - Background
  • Named after Giovanni Battista Monteggia (1762-1815), a surgeon and professor in Milan, Italy
  • He described this fracture pattern in the pre-Roentgen era based solely on history and physical examination findings
  • Interestingly, Monteggia acquired syphilis by cutting himself at autopsy
galeazzi s fracture
Galeazzi’s Fracture
  • Results from fall on outstretched hand with forearm in pronation. Rotation of body with hand fixed to ground causes hyperpronation and subsequent fracture
  • Fracture between middle and distal 1/3 of radius with associated disruption of distal radioulnar joint
  • Comprises 3-7% of all forearm fractures
galeazzi s fracture background
Galeazzi’s Fracture - Background
  • Ricardo Galeazzi (1866-1952), an Italian surgeon at the Instituto de Rachitici in Milan, described this fracture in 1935
  • Fracture synonymous with his name despite being originally described by Sir Astley Cooper in 1842
bennett s fracture dislocation
Bennett’s Fracture Dislocation
  • Results from axial blow directed against a partially flexed metacarpal (fist fight)
  • Intraarticular fracture/dislocation of the base of the first metacarpal
  • Volar fragment of metacarpal continues to articulate with trapezium
  • Most frequent thumb fx
bennett s fracture background
Bennett’s Fracture - Background
  • Edward Hallaran Bennett (1837-1907), an Irish surgeon, originally described fracture in 1882
  • Of interest, in college Bennett studied under Dr. Robert William Smith, and introduced antisepsis to Dublin
jones fracture
Jones Fracture
  • Results from laterally directed force on the forefoot during plantar flexion of the ankle
  • Fracture at base of fifth metatarsal located 1.5 – 3.0 cm distal to tuberosity (styloid process) of fifth metatarsal – patients often develop persistent nonunions
  • Avulsion fractures at tuberosity involving peroneus brevis tendon are more common (termed pseudo-Jones or tennis fracture) – better prognosis than Jones fracture
jones fracture background
Jones Fracture - Background
  • Sir Robert Jones (1855-1933), an English orthopaedic surgeon, first described fracture in 1902
  • Actually described his own fracture after injuring himself while dancing around a Maypole at a military garden party
tillaux fracture
Tillaux Fracture
  • Results from external rotation force with stress placed on anterior tibiofibular ligament
  • Salter Harris type III fracture involving avulsion of anterolateral tibial epiphysis via anterior tibiofibular ligament
  • Middle and medial portions of physis close first. This injury generally seen in older adolescents before lateral physis has closed.
tillaux fracture background
Tillaux Fracture - Background
  • Sir Astley Cooper (at left) first described this fracture in 1822 (recall he also first described the Galeazzi fracture!)
  • In 1892, Paul Jules Tillaux (1834-1904), a French surgeon, delineated the mechanism of this injury as an avulsion fracture
maisonneuve fracture
Maisonneuve Fracture
  • Results from external rotation force applied to the ankle with the foot in either supination or pronation
  • Spiral fracture of proximal 1/3 of fibula with associated syndesmotic ligament disruption and injury to the medial ankle structures (medial malleolus or deltoid ligament)
  • Originally described in 1840 by Jacques Gilles Maisonneuve (1809–1897)
boxer s fracture
Boxer’s Fracture
  • Caused by striking a solid object with a closed fist
  • Metacarpal neck fracture of little finger with volar angulation of metacarpal head
  • Skilled boxers rarely suffer this fracture as they don’t use a “roundhouse” motion when punching – usually see fracture of index metacarpal in professional fighter
references
References
  • Canale. Campbell’s Operative Orthopaedics, 9th ed. Mosby 1998.
  • Chapman. Chapman’s Orthopaedic Surgery, 3rd ed. Lippencott 2001
  • Wiesel and Delahay. Principles of Orthopaedic Medicine and Surgery. W.B. Saunders Company 2001
  • www.emedicine.com
  • www.learningradiology.com
  • www.wheelessonline.com
  • www.whonamedit.com
  • www.worldortho.com
the end
The End!

South Sister and Green Lake