ME551/GEO551 Geology of Industrial Minerals Spring 2007 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ME551/GEO551 Geology of Industrial Minerals Spring 2007

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  1. ME551/GEO551 Geology of Industrial Minerals Spring 2007 Commodities, Part 4 Magnesium, Perlite, nitrogen, phosphate, potash, salt, pumice

  2. Schedule • NMGS Spring meeting April 13 • Final given out April 24 • commodities presentation by students on April 24 • project presentations on May 1 • final and project due May 7

  3. Magnesium

  4. Magnesium—introduction Greek word for a district in Thessaly called Magnesia

  5. Magnesium—introduction • In 1618 a farmer at Epsom in England attempted to give his cows water from a well. • This they refused to drink because of the water's bitter taste. • However the farmer noticed that the water seemed to heal scratches and rashes. • The fame of Epsom salts spread.

  6. Magnesium—introduction • 8th most abundant element • 2% of crust • Magnesite or magnesia • Light • silvery-white • ignites upon heating in air • 1/3 lighter than Al

  7. Magnesium—properties

  8. Magnesium—uses • flashlight photography • flares and pyrotechnics, including incendiary bombs • improves the mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristics of aluminum • hydroxide (milk of magnesia), chloride, sulfate (Epsom salts), and citrate are used in medicine • refractory purposes such as brick and liners in furnaces and converter

  9. Magnesium compounds—uses • Refractories, 69% • agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental, and industrial applications, 31%

  10. Magnesium metal—uses • constituent of aluminum-base alloys, 53% • castings and wrought products, 30% • Desulfurization of iron and steel, 12% • reducing agent in nonferrous metals production, 1%

  11. Magnesium—production

  12. Magnesium—production

  13. Magnesium—production

  14. Magnesium—production

  15. Magnesium—geology • brines, wells, and sea water

  16. Magnesite http://www.webmineral.com/specimens/Magnesite.shtml

  17. Dolomite http://209.51.193.54/minerals/...

  18. Brucite http://209.51.193.54/minerals/...

  19. Olivine http://209.51.193.54/minerals/...

  20. Cautions • Magnesium metal and alloys are highly flammable in their pure form when molten, as a powder, or in ribbon form. • DO NOT USE WATER or CO2 • USE CLASS D • bright white light produced by burning magnesium can permanently damage the retinas of the eyes

  21. Perlite • What is perlite?

  22. Perlite—introduction • Volcanic siliceous glass • rhyolite composition • commercial perlite must expand • vitreous, pearly luster • inert • 2-5% water allows it to expand similar to popcorn above 871 degrees C • gray, white, black, but when expanded-white

  23. http://www.perlite.net/

  24. Perlite—uses • What are the uses of perlite?

  25. Perlite—uses • building construction products, 69% • horticultural aggregate,12% • filter aid, 8% • fillers, 7% • other, 4%

  26. Perlite—production • New Mexico leading state • Turkey, Greece, Italy, Russia, Australia, South Africa

  27. Perlite—substitutions • Diatomite • expanded clay and shale • pumice • slag • vermiculite

  28. Perlite—geology • Volcanic fields • Grants perlite quarry (U.S. Gypsum)

  29. Nitrogen and nitrates

  30. Nitrogen—introduction • Gas • 78.1% of the atmosphere • essential element of life • obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation • inert

  31. Nitrogen as ammonia—uses • What are uses of ammonia?

  32. Nitrogen as ammonia—uses • Fertilizer (Haber process), 89% • nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertilizers • nitric acid (Ostwald process) • produce plastics • synthetic fibers and resins • explosives • annealing stainless steel and other steel mill products • numerous other chemical compounds.

  33. Nitrogen as gas or liquid—uses • Produce ammonia • gas mixtures • refrigerant both for the immersion freezing of food products and for transportation of foods • build up pressure in wells to force crude oil upward

  34. Nitrogen as ammonia—production

  35. Nitrogen as ammonia—production

  36. Nitrogen as ammonia—transportation • refrigerated barge • rail • pipeline • truck

  37. Nitrogen—geology • Natural gas fields Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana • atmosphere • ammonia produced when coal is distilled (coke ovens)

  38. Nitrates—geology • Guano deposits in caves • Chile natural sodium nitrate (unique) • caliche rich in nitrate • driest desert in world 0.04 inch/yr allowed slow buildup of salines since the Miocene • NaCl, SO4, borates, iodine • Guggenheim process