Sugar Fuel M.L. Anderson, 2009
History • Sugarcane has been cultivated in Brazil since 1532. • Sugar was one of the first commodities exported to Europe by the Portuguese settlers. • Ethanol is obtained as a by-product of sugar mills producing sugar, and can be processed to produce alcoholic beverages, ethanol fuel, or alcohol for industrial or antiseptic applications.
History • Sugarfirst came into use as a fuel in the early 1930’swhen the automobile was introduced. • By 1929 there were 500 cars running on this sugar fuel in the country Northeast Region. • In the early 1970’s Brazil had its first oil crisis. • There were gasoline shortages and the Brazilian government began promoting bio-ethanol as a fuel.
HISTORY Ethanol fuelproduction peaked during World War II and, as German submarine attacks threatened oil supplies. The mandatory blend of ethanol became as high as 50% in 1943. The 'ProgramaNacional do Álcool’ launched in 1975, was a nation-wide program financed by the government to phase out automobile fuels derived from fossil fuels, such as gasoline, in favor of ethanol produced from sugar cane.
First Sugar Fuel Car • The decision to use sugarcane to produce ethanol was based on the low coast of sugar and the existing idle capacity for distillery at the sugar plants. • The first modern commercial ethanol-only powered car was the 1979 Brazilian Fiat 147. • It was launched intothe market in July 1979 and six years later about seventy-five percent of Brazilian passenger cars were manufactured with ethanol engines.
The 2005 VOLVO FLEXIFUEL S40 • Uses 85% ethanol with 15% oil. • Was one of the first E85 flexible fuel cars produced by a Swedish automaker. • The Volvo FlexiFuel is now offered on the European market. • Demand for ethanol is growing fast in Brazil because 90% of new cars have flex-fuel engines that can run on any mixture of petrol and ethanol.
Sugarcane Cultivation • Sugarcane is cultivated in tropical or subtropical climates that have a minimum of 60cm of annual moisture.
HARVESTING • Sugarcane is harvested mostly by hand and sometimes mechanically. • Hand harvesting accounts for more than half of the world's production, and is especially dominant in the developing world. • the field is first set on fire. burning away dry dead leaves, and killing any venomous snakes hiding in the crop, but leaving the water-rich stalks and roots unharmed. • With cane knives or machetes, harvesters then cut the standing cane just above the ground. • A skilled harvester can cut 500 kg of sugarcane in onehour.
MECHANICALHARVESTING • The machine cuts the cane at the base of the stalk and separates the cane from its leaves. • It then deposits the can into a transporter while the leaves get thrown back on to the field. • These machines harvest one-hundred tons of cane each hour.
Sugarcane Mining • Sugar cane is first moved to a mill that is relatively close to the area of cultivation. • They transport the sugar cane to the mill through small rail networks.
Sugarcane Processing • In the sugar mill, sugarcane is washed, chopped, and shredded by revolving knives. • The juices, called ‘garapa’ in Brazil, are collected. • The Juice contain 10-15% sucrose and ‘bagasse’, the fiber residue. • The bagasse can also be used for animal feed, paper manufacturer, or may be burned to generate electricity for the local power grid.
Sugarcane Processing • Next, lime is added to the sugar cane juice to adjust the pH and then the mixture sits to allow the suspended solids to settle out. • It is then transformed into a syrup that is mainly sucrose. • The cane juice is pasteurized and distilled producing ‘vinasse’, a fluid rich in organic compounds. • Typical ethanol distillery and dehydration facility, Piracicaba, São Paulo State.
Sugarcane Processing • Once the syrup becomes supersaturated it is seeded with crystalline sugar. • As it cools the sugar crystallizes out of the syrup. • Raw sugar usually has a brown color but can be bleached through a sulfitation process. • A centrifuge is used to separate the sugar from molasses, and the crystals are washed by the addition of steam, after which the crystals are dried by an airflow.
90% of the sugar cane is refined into sugar for consumption but the sticky syrup leftover is what is put into distillery At this point yeast is added and then the process is complete The smell of the cane has been compared to manure while the smell of the final product has been compared to that of a brewery. The entire process takes about three days Sugar fuel process
Benefits The main objective of the milling process is to extract the largest possible amount of sucrose from the cane. Secondary, but important objective is the production of bagasse, allowing the plant to be self-sufficient in energy and to generate electricity for the local power grid.
BENEFITS Ethanol produced from sugarcane provides energy that is renewable and less carbon intensive than oil. Bio-ethanol reduces air pollution thanks to its cleaner emissions, and also mitigates climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Ethanol from sugarcane is thought to be the most efficient bio-fuel in commercial production.
LOCATION Moema is one of Brazil's biggest sugar-cane mills, making Sao Paulo state, into the world capital of sugar cane ethanol. There are 320 mills all over Brazil which are in the race to keep up with rising domestic ethanol demand. Another 150 mills are scheduled to come on line over the next decade, mostly in the country's southeast. The Moema ethanol and sugar mill in Orindiuva, covers 173,000 acres
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Among the most controversial issues is the risk associated with the expansion of agricultural land and its direct or indirect impact on natural habitats The carbon footprint associated with future land use changes as ethanol production expands beyond the existing arable lands into the rainforests or other sensitive environments.
Is Sugar Fuel Really the Answer? • Overpopulation and demand has caused an increase in the industrial uses of sugar. • The demand for sugar is outpacing the production of the product itself. • This demand is extremely beneficial for countries that produce the sugar, but could it bedisastrous for the rest of the world? • Increased production causes added rain-forest destruction which adds to the decreased capacity for the sequestration of carbon gasses in the atmosphere by the forests.
ENERGY BALANCE • …Is the total amount of energy input into the process compared to the energy released by burning the resulting ethanol fuel. • This balance considers the full cycle of producing the fuel, as cultivation, transportation and production require energy, including the use of oil and fertilizers.
Energy Balance A comprehensive life cycle assessment commissioned by the State of São Paulo found that Brazilian sugarcane based ethanol has a favorable energy balance, varying from 8.3 for average conditions to 10.2 for best practice production. This means that for average conditions one unit of fossil-fuel energy is required to create 8.3 energy units from the resulting ethanol.
Pros • Reduce emissions of carbon monoxide by 50% and carbon dioxide by as much as 78%, because sugar fuel recycles carbon already in the atmosphere, instead of carbon introduced from petroleum. • Sugar fuel also contains less aromatic hydrocarbons. • It reduces tail pipe emissions, by 20%. • It is less toxic than table salt and more biodegradable than simple sugar. • In the US, biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have successfully completed the Health Effects Testing requirements of the Clean Air Act (1990) • In some areas in Europe, it is cheaper than actual diesel fuel.
More Negative Aspects • Other issues that are associated with sugar fuel production is the burning of the fields, adding carbon and other chemicals into the atmosphere. • The higher prices of food, as fuel production is utilizing tremendous acreage that could be used for food production. • In Brazil, machines began to replace the human workers, leaving many of the poor Brazils out of jobs. • Another concern about bio-ethanol is the energy balance. Is the total amount of energy input the same as the energy released by burning the resulting ethanol fuel?
HAZARDS: Ethanol Lung "Lung Fibrosis" is becoming a common ailment among those who cut the sugar cane. • From 2002 to 2005, the most recent years for which complete statistics are available, 312 sugar and ethanol workers died on the job, and 82,995 suffered accidents while working in cane fields and ethanol plants, according to Brazil's Social Security Administration.
Citations • http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2008/Resources/2795087-1192112387976/WDR08_05_Focus_B.pdf • http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/10/world/americas/10brazil.html?_r=2&pagewanted=1&sq=Bush%20Brazil%20ethanol&st=nyt&scp=5 • http://www.inee.org.br/down_loads/forum/SUGARCANE&ENERGY.pdf • http://www.jains.com/PDF/crop/sugarcane%20cultivation.pdf • http://fcamin.nic.in/dfpd/EventDetails.asp?EventId=236&Section=Sugar%20and%20Edible%20Oil&ParentID=0&child_continue=1&child_check=0 • Brenntag Management GmbH. (n.d.). sugar fuel. http://www.brenntag together.com/en/pages/issues/200702/tog_207_310_Promille.html • ethanol millling. (n.d.). http://www.geocities.com/nteng.rm/ • Daniel Budny and Paulo Sotero, editor (2007-04). "Brazil Institute Special Report: The Global Dynamics of Biofuels" (PDF). Brazil Institute of the Woodrow Wilson Center. • http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/Brazil_SR_e3.pdf. • "A Blueprint for Green Energy in the Americas". Inter-American Development Bank.
Citations http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=945774.. See chapters Introduction (pp. 339-444) and Pillar I: Innovation (pp. 445-482) MacedoIsaias, M. Lima Verde Leal and J. Azevedo Ramos da Silva (2004). "Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the production and use of fuel ethanol in Brazil" (PDF). Secretariat of the Environment, Government of the State of São Paulo. http://www.eners.ch/plateforme/medias/macedo_2004.pdf.. William Kovarik (2008). "Ethanol's first century". Radford University. http://www.runet.edu/~wkovarik/papers/International.History.Ethanol.Fuel.html.