Sugar Fuel. M.L. Anderson, 2009. History. Sugarcane has been cultivated in Brazil since 1532. Sugar was one of the first commodities exported to Europe by the Portuguese settlers.
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M.L. Anderson, 2009
Ethanol fuelproduction peaked during World War II and, as German submarine attacks threatened oil supplies.
The mandatory blend of ethanol became as high as 50% in 1943.
The 'ProgramaNacional do Álcool’ launched in 1975, was a nation-wide program financed by the government to phase out automobile fuels derived from fossil fuels, such as gasoline, in favor of ethanol produced from sugar cane.
At this point yeast is added and then the process is complete
The smell of the cane has been compared to manure while the smell of the final product has been compared to that of a brewery.
The entire process takes about three daysSugar fuel process
The main objective of the milling process is to extract the largest possible amount of sucrose from the cane.
Secondary, but important objective is the production of bagasse, allowing the plant to be self-sufficient in energy and to generate electricity for the local power grid.
Ethanol produced from sugarcane provides energy that is renewable and less carbon intensive than oil.
Bio-ethanol reduces air pollution thanks to its cleaner emissions, and also mitigates climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Ethanol from sugarcane is thought to be the most efficient bio-fuel in commercial production.
Moema is one of Brazil's biggest sugar-cane mills, making Sao Paulo state, into the world capital of sugar cane ethanol.
There are 320 mills all over Brazil which are in the race to keep up with rising domestic ethanol demand.
Another 150 mills are scheduled to come on line over the next decade, mostly in the country's southeast.
The Moema ethanol and sugar mill in Orindiuva, covers 173,000 acres
Among the most controversial issues is the risk associated with the expansion of agricultural land and its direct or indirect impact on natural habitats
The carbon footprint associated with future land use changes as ethanol production expands beyond the existing arable lands into the rainforests or other sensitive environments.
A comprehensive life cycle assessment commissioned by the State of São Paulo found that Brazilian sugarcane based ethanol has a favorable energy balance, varying from 8.3 for average conditions to 10.2 for best practice production.
This means that for average conditions one unit of fossil-fuel energy is required to create 8.3 energy units from the resulting ethanol.
"Lung Fibrosis" is becoming a common ailment among those who cut the sugar cane.
http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=945774.. See chapters Introduction (pp. 339-444) and Pillar I: Innovation (pp. 445-482)
MacedoIsaias, M. Lima Verde Leal and J. Azevedo Ramos da Silva (2004). "Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the production and use of fuel ethanol in Brazil" (PDF). Secretariat of the Environment, Government of the State of São Paulo. http://www.eners.ch/plateforme/medias/macedo_2004.pdf..
William Kovarik (2008). "Ethanol's first century". Radford University. http://www.runet.edu/~wkovarik/papers/International.History.Ethanol.Fuel.html.