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cecilia.hemming@his.se School of Humanities and Informatics, University College of Skövde Graduate School of Language Technology, Göteborg. Swedish and French Technical Terms Predicting the Translation of Swedish Productive Compound Nouns. Outline. Technical Terms & Translation

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cecilia.hemming@his.seSchool of Humanities and Informatics, University College of Skövde Graduate School of Language Technology, Göteborg

Swedish and French Technical Terms

Predicting the Translation of

Swedish Productive Compound Nouns

GSLT 2005-09-14

outline
Outline
  • Technical Terms & Translation
  • Production Patterns (Swedish vs French)
    • syntactic differences
    • semantic representation
  • Corpus Investigations
    • method
    • results
  • Conclusions

GSLT 2005-09-14

technical terms and translation
Technical Terms and Translation

oil management foothold

oljeledningsfäste

GSLT 2005-09-14

technical terms and translation4
Technical Terms and Translation
  • Swedish Productive Compound Noun
    • list all compounds in the lexicon?
  • Terminology, MT and MAHT
    • Reuse knowledge in:
      • Dictionaries, Terminology Databases, Translation Memories, …
      • Word Formation patterns

GSLT 2005-09-14

translation problem
Translation problem

From a Swedish n-n compound to a French equivalent

  • chose among translation candidates
  • suggestions for Unknown Terms and Neologisms
  • which French preposition to use

oljekanal [oil+duct] --canalisation à huile[duct prep. oil]

bränsleledning [fuel+pipe] -- conduite de carburant[pipe prep. fuel]

GSLT 2005-09-14

outline6
Outline
  • Technical Terms & Translation
  • Studying Production Patterns (Swe-Fre)
    • syntactic differences
    • semantic representation
  • Corpus Investigations
    • method
    • results
  • Conclusions

GSLT 2005-09-14

syntactic term production patterns
Syntactic Term Production Patterns
  • Language specific production patterns
    • Swedish:binominal compound
      • noun+noun (modifier+head)
        • oljekanal [oil+duct], bränsleledning [fuel+pipe]
    • French:post-modified prepositional compound
      • noun preposition noun(head + prep + modifier)
        • canalisation à huile [duct prep. oil]
        • conduite de carburant [pipe prep. fuel]

GSLT 2005-09-14

semantic connection between the head and the modifier
Semantic connection between the head and the modifier
  • French
    • explicitly hinted at by the preposition
      • conteneur de/en verre [glass container] (made-of)
      • conteneur à verre (for)
  • Swedish
    • underspecified
      • glascontainer [glass container]

(made of/containing glass)

GSLT 2005-09-14

generative lexicon theory
Generative Lexicon Theory

e.g. (Johnston & Busa, 1999), (Bassac & Bouillon, 2001)

  • Generative Lexicon Theory (Pustejovsky 1995)
    • Head-modifier relationships encoded by different qualia-roles
    • Semantic representation powerful enough to make the various interpretations explicit

GSLT 2005-09-14

qualia structure pustejovsky
Qualia Structure (Pustejovsky)
  • Four aspects of a word’s meaning
    • FORMAL
      • distinguishes a word within a larger domain
    • CONSTITUTIVE
      • relation between an object and its constituents
    • TELIC
      • the object’s purpose and function
    • AGENTIVE
      • the object’s origin or “bringing about”

GSLT 2005-09-14

complementary ambiguity and dotted types pustejovsky
Complementary Ambiguity and Dotted Types (Pustejovsky)
  • Complementary ambiguity: multiple senses
    • overlapping, dependent or shared meanings
  • From ambiguous compound to specific phrasal constructions
  • LCP Lexical Conceptual Paradigm (meta entries)
    • represented by dotted types x·y
    • two distinct types covered by a meta entry
    • inherits the functional behaviour of both types
  • pipe: physical object, aperture and phys.obj·aperture

GSLT 2005-09-14

semantic representations
Semantic representations
  • The liquid instantiates the argument of the head nouns telic role (physical object (possibly) encompassing fuel)
  • The liquid is the dot.object (aperture with pass_through function. The function of the compound = that of the complement)

GSLT 2005-09-14

possible figure ground reversals
Possible Figure/Ground-reversals

[fuel pipe]

  • Physical Object encompassing a substance

–> Formal role

    • Preposition à: bränslerör # tube à carburant
  • Aperture, enabling substance to pass through

–> Constitutive role – Telic role

    • Preposition de: bränsleledning # conduite de carburant

GSLT 2005-09-14

outline14
Outline
  • Technical Terms & Translation
  • Production Patterns (Swe-Fre)
    • syntactic differences
    • semantic representation
  • Corpus Investigations
    • method
    • results
  • Conclusions

GSLT 2005-09-14

semantic concepts
Semantic concepts
  • Nominal Sense alternations (Pustejovsky)
      • Count/Mass
      • Container/Containee batterilåda [battery box]
      • Figure/Ground Reversals bränslerör [fuel pipe]
      • Product/Producer
      • Plant/Food
      • Process/Result [circulation/vacuum pump]
      • Place/People

GSLT 2005-09-14

scania 95 corpus
Scania’95-Corpus
  • Scania lorry manuals (4000 terms)
    • designating machines and machine parts
    • Swedish noun-noun -> french prepositional phrase
    • noun de noun and noun à noun
  • Possible figure/ground reversals
    • object, Container/conductor-concept
    • aperture, pass_through function
    • pipe, duct, tap, hole… (101 terms)

GSLT 2005-09-14

possible figure ground reversals17
Possible Figure/Ground-reversals

Group 1) 46 terms

Head-morpheme: some sort of a channel or pipe,

Modifier: function or substance.

avgasledning # tuyau d'échappement [exhaust pipe]

bränslerör # tube à carburant[fuel pipe]

Group 2) 38 terms

Head-morpheme: some sort of tap or valve,

Modifier: function or substance.

inloppsventil # soupape d'admission [inlet valve]

tryckluftventil # valve à air comprimé[compressed-air valve]

GSLT 2005-09-14

possible figure ground reversals18
Possible Figure/Ground-reversals

Group 3) 17 terms

Head-morpheme: some sort of hole or aperture,

Modifier: function or substance.

dräneringshål # orifice d'évacuation [drainage]

luftintag # prise d'air [air inlet]

GSLT 2005-09-14

result 1
Result 1
  • Group 1) channel/pipe, + function or substance
    • 46 terms: function (36 terms) and substance (10 terms)
    • 44 Group1-terms are formed with de, only 2 with à
    • if modifier- function: exclusive use of de
    • if modifier- substance: both de and à (8 vs. 2)

GSLT 2005-09-14

result 2
Result 2
  • Group 2) tap/valve, + function or substance
    • 38 terms: function (34 terms) and substance (4 terms)
    • 37 Group2-terms are formed with de, only 1 with à
    • if modifier- a function: exclusive use of de
    • if modifier- a substance: both de and à (3 vs. 1)

GSLT 2005-09-14

result 3
Result 3
  • Group 3)hole/aperture, + function or substance
    • 17 terms: function (16 terms) and

substance (1 term)

    • All Group3-terms are formed with de, none with à

GSLT 2005-09-14

results scania 95 corpus
Results (Scania’95 Corpus)
  • Head-morpheme: channel/tap/aperture
  • Modifier: expressing its function
    • exclusively formed with de (85 terms)
  • Head-morpheme: channel/tap/aperture
  • Modifier: substance passing through
    • formed with both de(13 terms) and à (3 terms)

Modifier: 85 function vs. 16 substance

Prepositions: 98 de vs. 3 à

GSLT 2005-09-14

results scania 95 corpus23
Results(Scania’95 Corpus)
  • 96 occurrencies in the Scania’95 Corpus
  • N1channel/tap/aperture + de/à + N2substance
  • derampe, conduit, tube(16), déflecteur, gicleur, prise, conduite, traversée, ouverture, injecteur.
  • àcanalisation, tube(1), valve.

GSLT 2005-09-14

web study google hits
Web study – Google hits
  • Head: container/conductor concept [pipe]
  • modifier: substance/function

GSLT 2005-09-14

results web search
Results, Web search
  • Very few terms with à compared to de
    • tuyauterie à carburant [fuel pipe] (30 vs.13)
      • not in Scania´95 (conduite and tube + de)
  • More general substances [air] [water]
    • especially with the heads: tube and tuyau
      • à scores nearly as high as de

GSLT 2005-09-14

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Swedish terms, Head: container/conductor

Modifier: function

    • a frequent construction
    • in French: most likely formed with de

Modifier: substance passing through

    • less frequent construction
    • in French: mostly with de, sometimeswith à

GSLT 2005-09-14

conclusions27
Conclusions
  • in this subdomain de outperforms à
  • easy implementation:
    • translation suggestions with de as default

GSLT 2005-09-14

ongoing and future work
Ongoing and future work
  • other prepositions
    • en, sur, par, dans…
  • other nominal sense alternations
    • container/containée, process/result…
  • bigger corpus
    • on-line manuals (copyright questions)
  • compare to Polish terms (Gawronska)

GSLT 2005-09-14

slide29
Thank You

for

listening!

GSLT 2005-09-14