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Car restraining in Beijing: Evaluating the factors that impede or facilitate Jiang Kejun, Huang Liya Energy Research Institute Transport Planning and Research Institute 1 December 2006 Contents Background P olicy challenges in Beijing Future transport scenarios

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car restraining in beijing evaluating the factors that impede or facilitate

Car restraining in Beijing:Evaluating the factors that impede or facilitate

Jiang Kejun, Huang Liya

Energy Research Institute

Transport Planning and Research Institute

1 December 2006

contents
Contents
  • Background
  • Policy challenges in Beijing
  • Future transport scenarios
  • Policies and measures newly adopted or planned
  • Strategic analysis
chapter 1 background
Chapter 1:Background

Rapid economic growth

Urbanization process

Beijing

Huge Immigration

Private carsincrease

Rising transport and environmental problems

chapter 1 background4
Chapter 1:Background
  • The development of Transport in Beijing
chapter 2 p olicy challenges in beijing
Chapter 2: Policy challenges in Beijing
  • Factors analysis:

Which ones promote vehicle growth in Beijing?

  • Problems analysis:

What are caused by growth of vehicles?

2 1 factors promoting vehicle growth
2.1 Factors promoting vehicle growth

In recent years in Beijing:

Private carsincrease dramatically :

-more than 80% of newly increased vehicles in Beijing are carssince 2000

Income increase

Car industry promotion

Car Price fall

Diversification of car fashion

Easier financing or loan for affording a car

Deficient public transport

Rising transport and environmental problems

2 2 problems caused by growth of vehicles
2.2 Problems caused by growth of vehicles

Rising transport and environmental problems

Traffic congestions

  • urban congestion areas increased

noise pollution

  • average traffic noisy level is 69.6, where 68.1 in urban and 70.3 in suburb in 2004

Air pollution

  • the heaviest NOx pollution among all north cities
chapter 3 future transport scenarios

BaU: Government Promotion

TG: Technology Progress

CF: Clean Future

Chapter 3: Future transport scenarios

Scenario 1

Scenario 2

Scenario 3

chapter 3 future transport scenarios9
Chapter 3: Future transport scenarios

Scenario 1:

Government promotion (BaU)

Present transportation policies will continue;

Present vehicles with lower energy use will become gradually more popular.

chapter 3 future transport scenarios10
Chapter 3: Future transport scenarios

Scenario 2:

Technology Progress (TG)

  • Additional environment-friendly policies will be introduced

e.g.emission standard, public transport promotion policies;

  • Present vehicles with lower energy use will soon become more popular

e.g. high fuel economy gasoline vehicle , new diesel vehicles.

chapter 3 future transport scenarios11
Chapter 3: Future transport scenarios

Scenario 3:

Clean future (CF)

  • the introduction of advanced cars (e.g. hybrid cars, fuel-cell cars)
  • policies to encourage mini cars

Additional policies and measures :

to improve the environmental performance of transport system

  • integrated design of transportation system and city function areas
  • top priority given to public transit
  • use of bio-gasoline
  • public involvement
chapter 4 p olicies and measures newly adopted or planned
Chapter 4: Policies and measures newly adopted or planned

1 Environmental policies

2 Economic policies

3Urban planningpolicies

chapter 4 p olicies and measures newly adopted or planned13
Chapter 4: Policies and measures newly adopted or planned

1 Environmental policies: vehicle emission control

  • Emission standards

Began to implement Europe Emission Standard III in 2005;

Plan to implement National Emission Standard IV by 2008.

  • Promote high efficiency vehicles

Vehicle fuel tax will be adopted in near future, to replace existing road construction fee.

  • Improve fuel quality standard

High quality fuel standard was announced, and fuel provider was asked to produce cleaner (sulphur content less than 150ppmv) gasoline and diesel before 2007.

chapter 4 p olicies and measures newly adopted or planned14
Chapter 4: Policies and measures newly adopted or planned

2 Economic policies

  • Vehicle consumption tax

The tax rate was revised to promote compact carsin 2006

  • Parking fees

The fee standards in Beijingwere increased in 2002,they are differed by region, parking time and vehicle type

  • Gasoline and diesel consumption tax

0.2yuan/litter for unleaded vehicle use gasoline

0.1yuan/litter for diesel

  • Subsidy for public transport

In 2005, subsidy from government on bus system is 1billion yuan, and 0.5billion yuan on subway

chapter 4 p olicies and measures newly adopted or planned15
Chapter 4: Policies and measures newly adopted or planned

3Urban planningpolicies

  • “Public transport first” Planning

By 2008, 18,000 fleets of transit buses will number , 650 public transport lines

By 2010, 13 subway lines and 2 extension lines, totalling 408 kilometres.

By 2020, 20 subway lines, totalling 700 kilometres. There will be more than 1000km mass railway transport system in Beijing

Additional 360 kilometres of MRTS will link the central downtown core with the 14 satellite towns located on Beijing’s outskirts

  • Intelligence transport system development

Beijing Olympic intelligence transport system

chapter 5 strategic analys i s

Car restraining policies

Roles in policy making process

implementation problems

Cross-sector impact

Chapter 5: Strategic analysis

Strategic

analysis

Uncertainties on key assumptions

chapter 5 strategic analys i s17
Chapter 5: Strategic analysis
  • The key policies for restrainingcar-using in Beijing
    • Fuel tax-1to 1.5 yuan/litter for gasoline and diesel before 2010, then increase it to be near European level by 2020
    • Road pricing (also named as traffic jam fee)-implement road fee for area within second ring road
    • Public transport development-by 2020, share of public transport will increase to more than 50%
    • No-entry regulation -vehicles in some areas are forbidden to get, e.g. Wangfujing Commercial area
    • Road network development-better design for bicycle lane and sideway
    • Public awareness-involvement of public for their choice on travel
chapter 5 strategic analys i s18
Chapter 5: Strategic analysis
  • Roles in policy making process in Beijing

National government

agencies

Research

teams

Beijing government

agencies

policies

Public involvement

chapter 5 strategic analys i s19
Chapter 5: Strategic analysis
  • Uncertainties on key assumptions
    • Fuel tax, uncertainties on:
      • Effect of reducing car use
      • Effect of increasing sales of energy-saving cars
    • Road pricing
      • uncertainty on cost-benefit balance
chapter 5 strategic analys i s20
Chapter 5: Strategic analysis

implementation problems