An Evaluation of an On-line Anatomy Course by Lab Instructors: Building on Instructional Design Guo, X., Katz, L., & Maitland, M. The University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada Presented By: Chris Chisamore, MA EdTech Sport Technology Research Centre In Montreal, at the AACE E-Learn 2002, World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education
Introduction to the Project • Innovative laboratory and video series • Commercially developed products • Locally developed learning modules • Web-based resources • New approach to teaching and synthesizing resources • Motivate learner • Independent study with feedback • Research into how people learn
Benefits of the Project • On-line learning benefits: • Flexible and dynamic learning environment • Allows for multimedia presentations • Provides access to a potentially rich, collaborative and powerful learning environment • Requires thoughtful analysis and investigation of Web’s potential and instructional design principles
Evaluation of the Project • Evaluation methods for on-line learning varied • For this study: qualitative approach • From the perspective of instructional design and teaching strategy
Content of the Project An on-line computer lab including four labs
Lab: Introduction Every lab has a brief introduction detailing important anatomical features.
Lab: Surface Anatomy The surface anatomy section includes labeled regions of muscles, bones, and organs which can be viewed from anterior, lateral, or posterior positions.
Lab: Dissection The information, images, and tests of the dissection section are launched from the Gold Standard Multimedia web site Human Anatomy Online.
Lab: Movement Joint articulation in the movement section is demonstrated in video captures of human motion, and three-dimensional animation movies.
The Functional Anatomy Website www.kin.ucalgary.ca/anatomy
LAB 2 – The Upper Extremity Shoulder: Elevation/Depression
LAB 2 – The Upper Extremity Elbow: Flexion/Extension
LAB 3 – The Lower Extremity Hip: External/Internal Lateral Rotation
LAB 3 – The Lower Extremity Ankle: Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion
LAB 4 – The Torso Neck: C1-C2 Occipital Hexion
Research • Anatomy course at the university of Calgary • Learner style, experience, gender and attitude toward technology • Impact on performance • Learner interactions with the technology including on-task and off-task behavior
Methods • Participants • Four lab instructors • Instruments and its validity • Five-point Likert scale of ten questions • Procedure • Informed consent, questionnaire, interviewed • Analysis of the results • Descriptive statistical analysis for questionnaires, interviews transcribed and cross-referenced
Results - Demographics • 3 instructors, 2 classes/week • 1 instructor, 1 class/week • Classes averaged 24 students (computer and cadaver lab)
Results - Overall • Results indicated need for: • Clear teaching objectives • Appropriate amount of information for students • Teaching strategies to match learning style and motivation of students • Instructors positive about the dynamic and interactive 3-D animation
Results of Questionnaires • First six questions, on general impressions: • 3 of 4 satisfied with website navigation and exercises • 3 of 4 satisfied with content and presentation • 2 of 4 satisfied with course objectives • Second part, on students opinions • Did not feel computer environment improved students’ communication or motivation, undecided if students learned more or not • Felt students preferred the cadaver lab
Results of Interviews • Felt on-line course content too detailed • Felt role in computer lab more of facilitator • Computer lab vs. Cadaver lab? • Cadaver lab, hands on experience but time limited • Computer lab, review material, more interactive than textbook (animation, movement clips) • However, text (i.e. textbook) is tangible, mobile • Feeling was that on-line computer lab, while dynamic and helpful, cannot replace the textbook
Results – Other Issues • Learner characteristics (more kinetic, learning by doing) • Career relevance • Stability and quality of software programme • (could frustrate student enthusiasm if not handled properly)
Conclusions • Issues of gender • Learning styles • Computer use • The need for instructional design, content and teaching strategies which account for learner characteristics as well as classroom environment • 3-D animation and interactivity attracted students
Conclusions • Suggestions included: • Content should be current/relevant to students needs • Expected learning outcomes must be clearly defined • Too much text on one page should be avoided • Students should not be overwhelmed with information • Increased Internet access, voluntary lab assignments should be encouraged
Recommendations • Future study of student work-load and its impact on knowledge mastery • Student comfort with using technology as it relates to performance and attitude
Thank You http://www.kin.ucalgary.ca/strc/anatomyweb2/