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Healthcare Human Resource Management Flynn Mathis Jackson Langan. Training and Development in Healthcare Organizations. Chapter 8. PowerPoint Presentation by Tonya L. Elliott, PHR. Learning Objectives. After you have read this chapter, you should be able to:

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healthcare human resource management flynn mathis jackson langan

Healthcare Human Resource ManagementFlynn Mathis Jackson Langan

Training and Development

in Healthcare Organizations

Chapter 8

PowerPoint Presentation by

Tonya L. Elliott, PHR

learning objectives
Learning Objectives

After you have read this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Discuss how job performance and training can be integrated
  • Identify how organizational and training strategies are linked
  • Define various learning styles
  • Describe the orientation, training, and staff development requirements of the Joint Commission
  • Explain the unique aspects of healthcare employee development
training development
Training & Development


  • A process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals
  • An investment in the human capital of the organization that benefits the entire organization longer-term

Employee Development

  • Broader in scope
  • Focuses on individuals gaining new capabilities useful for both current and future jobs
nature of training in healthcare organizations
Nature of Training in Healthcare Organizations

According to: The American Society of Training and Development (ASTD)

  • U.S. employers spending at least $60 billion/year on training
  • Average investment per employee:

Average firm $ 650

Leading edge firms $1,966

Healthcare industry $ 345

common types of healthcare training
Common Types of Healthcare Training
  • New employee orientation
  • Conducting performance appraisals
  • Personal computer courses
  • Team building
  • Customer service
  • Leadership skills
  • Sexual harassment prevention
  • Selection interviewing
  • Patient safety
  • Operating new equipment
  • Diversity awareness
integration of job performance training learning
Integration of Job Performance, Training, & Learning

These must be integrated to be effective

Steps to linkage between job performance & training:

  • Trainee watch the trainer perform the function in the proper manner
  • Trainee attempts to safely replicate the actions
  • Trainer provides real-time feedback to the trainee

Authentic training experiences increase effectiveness

  • Use real organizational problems to advance employee learning
  • Every day operations can be used as learning examples
training as performance consulting
Training as Performance Consulting

Performance Consulting

Process in which a trainer and the organizational client work together to boost workplace performance

Next Steps:

  • Identify & address root causes of performance problems
  • Recognize the interaction of individual and organizational factors
  • Compare actions & accomplishments of high performers with others

Desired & actual

organizational results

Desired & actual

employee performance


HR Unit

Skill-training materials

Organizational new employee orientation

Coordinates training efforts

Off-the-job training

Coordinates career plans & employee development

Provides input for organizational development

Maintains training records

Healthcare Managers

Departmental new employee orientation

Provide technical information

Monitor training needs

On-the-job training

Discuss employees’ growth and future potential

Participate in organizational change efforts

Determine on-going training needs for their area

Typical Training Responsibilities


Legal Issues and Training

EEO Issues

  • Selection for training

-- shouldn’t unfairly restrict protected-class members

  • Differences in pay based on training

-- if protected-class members have not had access

  • Use of training as basis for promotion decisions

-- if protected-class members have not had training

Training Contracts

Employers protecting the cost and time invested in specialized employee training


Strategic Training

Strategic Training

-- Efforts that develop individual work competencies

-- Can produce ongoing value and competitive advantages for the organization

Key Foundations:

  • Training based on organizational plans & HR planning
  • HR involved in organizational change & strategic planning to create supporting training programs
  • Training is a strategic asset

Step 1: Assessment of Training Needs

Step 1: Assessment

A diagnosis: considers employee and organizational performance issues to determine if training can help

Gap analysis

Identifies the distance between where an organization is with its employee capabilities and where it needs to be

Sources of Training Needs Assessment

  • Organizational
  • Job-based
  • Individual employee

Step 2: Training Design

Step 2: Training Design

Determining how the assessed needs are to be addressed, considering learning concepts, legal issues, and types of training available


  • Determining learner readiness
  • Understand different learning styles
  • Designing training for transfer

Step 2: Training Design (cont’d)

Adult Learning

Whole learning / Gestalt learning

Training broken down into sections after explaining the “bigger picture” of how they fit together


***Based on law of effect***

People repeat behaviors that give positive effects, and avoid behaviors that give negative effects

Immediate Confirmation

Reinforcement and feedback given as soon as possible after training


Step 3: Transfer of Training

Step 3: Transfer of Training

2 conditions for effective transfer of training:

  • Trainees must be able to apply it to the job context in which they work
  • Learned material must be maintained over time on the job

Types of Training Design

  • Required & regular training
    • Legal requirements, all employee training
  • Job/technical training
    • Specific to performing tasks
  • Interpersonal and problem-solving training
    • Improve organizational working relationships
  • Developmental and innovative training
    • Long-term focus to enhance individual and organizational capabilities

Orientation for New Employees


The planned introduction of new employees to their jobs, co-workers, and the organization

Key purposes:

  • Establish a favorable impression
  • Provide organization and job performance information
  • Enhance interpersonal acceptance by co-workers
  • Accelerate new employee’s integration into organization
  • Ensure quicker employee performance & productivity

Other Types of Training Design

Encourage Self-Development

  • Resource libraries / learning labs
  • Computer-based training access
  • Professional society meetings / workshops
  • Tuition reimbursement

On-going Training & Development

  • Correcting performance or competence deficiencies
  • Training on new technology/techniques/processes
  • Meet safety or regulatory compliance requirements
  • Prepare employees for new duties or opportunities

Delivery of Training

Internal Training

Informal training

  • Interactions and feedback among employees

On-the-job training

  • Planned training, manager teaches/shows employee what to do

External Training


  • Using external training firms, consultants, or other entities

E-Learning: Training Online


The use of the Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training online

Training Methods That Use Technology:

  • Instructor-led classroom & conference training
  • Distance training / learning
  • Interactive video training
  • Computer-supported simulations
  • Electronic performance support systems

Evaluation of Training

Balancing Costs and Benefits of Training

Typical Costs

Typical Benefits

  • Trainer’s salary and time
  • Trainees’ salaries and time
  • Materials for training
  • Expenses for trainer/trainees
  • Cost of facilities & equipment
  • Lost productivity
  • (opportunity costs)
  • Increase in production
  • Reduction in errors/accidents
  • Reduction in turnover
  • Less supervision necessary
  • Ability to use new capabilities
  • Attitude changes

Developing Human Resources


An effort to improve employees’ ability to handle a variety of assignments and to cultivate capabilities beyond those required by the current job

Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs)

The assets of individuals

Succession Planning

Process of identifying a longer-term plan for the orderly replacement of key employees


Succession Planning Process:

A Strategic HR Issue

Figure 8-7


Development Approach: Job-Site Development


  • The observation and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors

Committee Assignments / Meetings

Job Rotation

  • Process of shifting an employee from job to job


  • Staff positions immediately under a manager

Development Approach: Off-site Methods

Classroom Courses and Degrees

Human Relations Training

  • Prepares supervisors for dealing with “people problems”

Leaves of Absence


  • Paid time off the job to develop and rejuvenate oneself

Management Development

Effective management = knowledge + judgment

Management Development includes a combination of:


Dealing with change

Coaching & advising

Controlling operations

Providing performance feedback




Managerial Modeling


Management Coaching

Good coaching = observation + suggestions

Coaching Pointers:

  • Explain appropriate behavior
  • Make clear why actions were taken
  • Accurately state observations
  • Provide possible alternatives / suggestions
  • Follow up / reinforcement


A relationship in which experienced managers aid individuals in the earlier stages of their careers


HR Development & Organizational Restructuring

Employee development has changed:

  • Middle management “ladder” in healthcare organization now includes more horizontal rather than upward moves
  • Organizations targeting efforts on core competencies
  • Growth of project-based work