Image Management. Dr. Hayit Greenspan Dept of BioMedical Engineering Faculty of Engineering firstname.lastname@example.org 640-7398. Roles for Imaging in Health Care:. Diagnosis Assessment and Planning Guidance of Procedures Communication Education and Training Research.
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Dr. Hayit Greenspan
Dept of BioMedical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Assessment and Planning
Guidance of Procedures
Education and Training
Visualization of the values of the attenuation coefficients by way
of gray values produces an anatomic image.
MRI Image Diagnosis
Assessment and Planning
Guidance of Procedures
Education and Training
A functional map (in color) in the cerebellum during performance of a cognitive peg-
board puzzle task, overlaid on a T2*-weighted axial image in gray scale. The dentate
nuclei appear as dark crescent shapes at the middle of the cerebellum due to iron
deposits. fMRI images were acquired by conventional T2*-weighted FLASH techniques
with a spatial resolution of 1.25x1.25x8 mm3 and a temporal resolution of 8 seconds.
Each color represents a 1% increment, starting at 1%. R, right cerebellum; L, left
cerebellum. A left-handed subject used the left hand to perform the task. Bilateral
activation in the dentate nuclei and cerebellar cortex was observed. The activated area
in the dentate nuclei during performance of pegboard puzzle was 3-4 times greater than
that seen during the visually guided peg movements. (see details in Kim et al., 1994b).
Whole brain functional imaging study during a visuo-motor error detection and correction task.
Functional images were acquired by the multi-slice single-shot EPI imaging technique with
spatial resolution of 3.1x3.1x5 and temporal resolution of 3.5 seconds. The skull and associated
muscles were eliminated by image segmentation. The 3-D image constructed from multi-slice
images was rendered by Voxel View program (Vital Images, Fairfield, Iowa).The task was to
move a cursor from the central start box onto a square target by moving a joystick. Eight targets
were arranged circumferentially at 450angles and displaced radially at 200 around a central start
box. Activation (in color) is observed at various brain areas. Top image displays the brain as a
3-D solid object so that only the cortical surface is seen. In the bottom image, a posterior section
was removed at the level of the associative visual cortex to display activation not visible from the
surface (Kindly provided by Jutta Ellermann, Jeol Seagal, and Timothy Ebner).
Medical Images are at the heart of diagnosis, therapy and follow-up.
Digital medical image data in US per year:
Generation & Acquisition
Post processing & Management.
Medical imaging information types:
still images; pictures; moving images; structured text; plain text; sound; graphics.
Driving the shift toward multimedia applications in medical imaging:
market demand; capital investment in imaging devices; need to organize and store multimodal image data + associated clinical data; ability to extract info in images.
CollectionsMultimedia Information Systems:Work-centered Scenario
Patient needs neurosurgery to remove a tumor
CT, MRI, PET scans: digitized and scanned
Images are registered with a 3D brain model
Using tumor as template, request to find:
patients of same sex
with similar tumors
in similar positions
Information systems and networks that facilitate the
of medical images.
Imaging Informatics- a new discipline:
Global Processing: enhance contrast resolution;
Segmentation: finding regions of interest;
Feature detection & extraction;
Temporal subtraction (DSA)
3D reconstruction and visualization
Multimodality image fusion
Principle of contrast enhancement:
(a) intensity distribution along a line of an image;
(b) same distribution after injection of the contrast medium;
(c) intensity distribution
(d) intensity distribution after contrast enhancement.
An initial image mask is obtained digitized and stored
Contrast medium is injected
Number of images are obtained.
Mask is subtracted
The resulting image contains only the relevant information
The differences can be amplified so the eye will be able to perceive the the blood
Quality of deteriorate due to movements of the body can be corrected to some extent.
Atlasas of brain and other organs: allow views from any viewpoint;
Fusion of modalities +Anatomical atlases
Digital acquisition of images offers the exciting prospect of reducing the physical space requirements, material cost, and manual labor of traditional film-handling tasks, through online digital archiving, rapid retrieval of images via querying of image databases, and high-speed transmission over communication networks.
Researchers are working to develop such systems that have such capabilities - picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).
Issues that need to be addressed for PACS to be practical:
technology for high-resolution acquisition
high capacity storage
standardization of image-transmission and storage formats
storage management schemes for enormous volumes of data
design of display consoles/workstations
Early attempts in mid 80s
Univ. of Kansas, Templeton et al (84): earliest prototype systems to study PACS in radiology
Inst of radiology in St. Louis, Blaine et al (83): PACS Workbench
experiments in image acquisition, transmission, archiving and viewing
Substantial progress on several fronts:
Standards (DICOM) support transition from acquisition devices to storage devices
Expansion in disk capacities and dramatic decreases in cost
Hierarchical storage-management schemes
Increased resolution workstation display
Image manipulation tools
Many Departments have mini-PACS; Large scale PACS increased in number from 13 to 23 in a 15-month period.
We formed image archives
How do we access the content??
Extract content from file headers
***Content-based Image Retrieval***
Which features should we use?
How are we to organize them?
Arrange for Search?
“Example like this”
“similar image features”
“50% blue and 50% green”
Text/Keywords wont do it:
“ One picture is worth a thousand words”
Standard Object Recognition wont do it
Our Representation & Indexing Goals
retrieve visual data based on content
Image Representation: Pixels to Content
Feature Processing Module
Feature Extraction & Representation
Efficient query processing necessitates organization of indices for efficient search
interrelated multiple attributes
Need flexible data structures (quad-tree, R-tree..)
Database Management Module
Physical storage structure and access path to the database
insulation between programs and data
provides a representation of the data
supprots multiple views of data
ensures data consistency
Medical Image DBMS
Multimedia Medical Imaging Applications testbed: