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ECOSYSTEMS. SC Standard B-6: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships among organisms & the biotic & abiotic components of their environment. What is Ecology ?. is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms & their environment

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ecosystems

ECOSYSTEMS

SC Standard B-6: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships among organisms & the biotic & abiotic components of their environment

what is ecology
What is Ecology?
  • is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms & their environment
  • Levels of Organization
    • Individual organism
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biome
    • Biosphere
ecological methods
Ecological Methods
  • Observing
    • used to do basic counts or as 1st step of experiments
  • Experimenting
    • conducted in laboratory or in natural world
  • Modeling
    • use models to gain insight into large-scale or complex phenomena
    • insights gained from studying models often followed up with further observations & experiments in real world
what is an ecosystem
What is an Ecosystem?
  • Community: a group of various species that live in the same habitat & interact with each other
  • Ecosystem: a community of organisms & their abiotic environment
what is an ecosystem1
What is an Ecosystem?
  • Biotic factors: describes living factors in an ecosystem
    • Includes dead organisms & the waste of organisms
  • Abiotic factors: includes the physical or nonliving factors of an environment
    • Examples: rock, air, water, sunlight, climate
slide6
Biosphere

Biome

Group of ecosystems with same climate,& similar dominant communities

  • Part of Earth in which life exists, including: land, water, air (atmosphere)
habitat
HABITAT
  • place where an organism usually lives
biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY
  • Includes:
  • the variety of organisms in a given area
  • the genetic variation within a population
  • the variety of species in a community
  • the variety of communities in an ecosystem
slide10
Biodiversity is low in habitats with extreme abiotic factors: Artic Circle, Antarctica
    • also, the open ocean has low biodiversity
    • Areas with low biodiversity can be easily damaged.
what is an ecosystem2
What is an Ecosystem?
  • What are the two ecosystems with the greatest biodiversity?
what is an ecosystem3
What is an Ecosystem?
  • Tropical Rainforest
  • Coral Reef
succession
SUCCESSION
  • the replacement of one type of community by another at a single location over a period of time
succession1
Primary:

Starts with bedrock

Volcanic island or receding glacier

Starts with lichen, mosses (pioneer species)

Secondary:

Starts with soil

Example: huge forest fire leaves only soil behind

In the soil are organisms, seeds

Recovery much shorter

Starts with grasses, weeds, shrubs

Jack pine requires high temperature for seed to be released

Succession
what is an ecosystem4
Pioneer species: the 1st organisms to appear in a newly made habitat

example:

new volcanic island

receding glacier

Lichens, Mosses

What is an Ecosystem?
what is lichen
What is Lichen?
  • It is a mass of fungal & algal cells that grow together in a symbiotic relationship & that are usually found on rocks or trees
  • Symbiosis: a relationship in which 2 different organisms live in a close association with each other
lichens
Lichens
  • Some colonies estimated to be > 9,000 years old
  • Uses:
    • Antimicrobials
    • Dyes
    • Repel herbivores
    • Discourage competition from other plants
    • Eaten by reindeer & caribou
primary succession
Primary Succession
  • After the lichens & mosses have formed soil: grasses & weeds start to grow  shrubs  pine trees  hard wood trees
equilibrium
Equilibrium
  • Sometimes, the ecosystem will find an equilibrium in which different species dominate after a change.
  • Example: if rainfall higher than normal one species of grass dominates the savanna but when there is a drought, a drought-resistant grass dominates
climate
CLIMATE
  • the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
biome
BIOME
  • a large region characterized by a specific type of climate & certain types of plant & animal communities
terrestrial biomes
Terrestrial Biomes
  • Grouped by latitude into:
  • Tropical
    • Near equator
  • Temperate
    • 30º – 60º
  • High-latitude
    • > 60º
tropical biomes
Tropical Biomes
  • All warm but have differing amounts of rainfall
  • Tropical Rainforests
tropical rainforest
Layers:

Emergents

100 – 120 ft tall

Canopy

Light available at top

Little air movement, hi humidity

Understory Layer

little light (<3%)

Trees have arrested growth until more light becomes available

Forest floor

Little growth: light 1%, water scarce

The most complex in terms of structure & biodiversity

Tropical Rainforest
2 savanna tropical grasslands
Less rain than rainforest

Have long dry seasons followed by short wet season

2. Savanna: Tropical Grasslands
temperate biomes
Have wide range of temperatures

4 temperate biomes

Grasslands

Forests

Deserts

Rainforest

Temperate Biomes
1 temperate grasslands
moderate precipitation

Rain & Snow

cooler temperatures than Savanna

1. Temperate Grasslands
2 temperate forests
Deciduous Forests

Shed leaves in fall

Evergreens

Animals:

Deer

Squirrel

Beaver

Raccoons

2. Temperate Forests
temperate rainforest
Temperate Rainforest
  • found in Washington State
aquatic biomes freshwater
Aquatic Biomes: Freshwater

Includes: ponds

lakes

streams

rivers

aquatic biomes wetlands
Include swamps, bayou

Have high biodiversity with many plants, insects, crustaceans, reptiles, amphibians, birds, fish, and mammals

Aquatic Biomes: Wetlands
aquatic biomes estuaries
Estuary

Area where fresh water from rivers & streams mixes with salt water in seas

Organisms adapted to varying concentrations of salt

High biodiversity : many fish lay their eggs here, crustaceans, bivalves

Mangroves:

Aquatic Biomes: Estuaries