A Very Short History of Bar Code - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A Very Short History of Bar Code

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  1. A Very Short History of Bar Code Which may or may not apply to RFID

  2. Bar Code in the Stone Age

  3. 1970 - 1982 Saw Many Intra-Company Applications

  4. Joe Woodland – 1949 patent

  5. April 1973 – UPC Standard Adopted (US & Canada)

  6. Obstacles – Chicken & Egg • Return on investment for the retailer required source marking by the manufacturer • It took 4.6 years for manufacturers to provide UPC symbols on 75% of pre-packaged items sold in supermarkets

  7. Obstacles – Item Price Marking • Controversy over the removal of price stickers on individual items • Retail unions & consumer advocates • Unfavorable publicity about price errors at the point of sale • State and local legislation required item price marking

  8. Obstacles - Superstition • A Satanic plot - 666 This was a real book! Analogous to RFID privacy concerns 6 6 6

  9. Obstacles – Patent Litigation • Bilgutay vs. Uniform Code Council • Lawsuits between scanner manufacturers • Lemelson vs. end user companies • $1,500,000,000 collected in license fees • 2001 - Symbol Technologies & others filed suit against Lemelson • 2004 - Federal court declares Lemelson claims invalid and unenforceable

  10. Number of scanning stores in the US & Canada 0 6 45 111 210 432

  11. Positive publicity - 1978 Fortune Magazine Wall Street Journal

  12. Positive publicity - 1982 Fortune Magazine

  13. Other Significant Bar Code Mandates US Automobile Industry US DOD 1983/4 These mandates together with UPC and EAN sharply accelerated market growth.

  14. Subsequent Progress • Bar code replaced OCR in fashion retail • International Symbology Standards • Verification developed & standardized • 2 dimensional bar codes • Ultimately bar code spread world wide to every facet of retail, distribution, and manufacturing

  15. RFID – my opinion RFID will take root and flourish, not by replacing bar code, but by solving those problems wherein it provides the superior solution.