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A VERY SHORT COURSE IN IRISH HISTORY. Theobald Wolfe Tone (1763-1798). was a teacher and lawyer member of the Protestant Ascendency But was also one of Ireland’s greatest patriots Helped to create the United Irishmen was captured by the British after the United Irishmen were outlawed

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theobald wolfe tone 1763 1798

Theobald Wolfe Tone (1763-1798)

was a teacher and lawyer

member of the Protestant Ascendency

But was also one of Ireland’s greatest patriots

Helped to create the United Irishmen

was captured by the British after the United Irishmen were outlawed

Took his own life to avoid giving the British the satisfaction of executing him

united irishmen
United Irishmen
  • Founded by Wolfe Tone
  • Focused on the principles of civil, political, and religious liberty
the croppies
The Croppies
  • The term "croppy" is said to be a nickname given to the rebels of Wexford during the 1798 rebellion because of their close-cropped hair, and for many generations the term was synonymous with "rebel". 
  • Very popular folk song called “The Croppy Boy”
irish rebellion 1798
Irish Rebellion 1798
  • Inspired by the French Revolution
    • Admiration of the French by the United Irishmen was seen as treason by the government
  • Took Place in a ring of counties surrounding Dublin
    • 30,000-50,000 rebels VS 76,000 government troops
  • Two main centers of rebellion (E. Ulster and S. Leinster)
    • Rebels were defeated at both
    • French landing was too late to help rebels and they were defeated as well
    • Total casualties estimated at 30,000 lives
causes
Causes:
  • British economic policy; mass exportation of food
  • Laws designed to repress the native Irish
  • Mass eviction; people removed from their land
  • Poor farming methods
  • Potato fungus that occurred in 1845
effects
Effects:
  • Mass emigration to the U.S., Great Britain, Canada, Australia
  • Death toll nearing 1 million due to malnutrition and starvation
significance of the potato
Significance of the Potato
  • Major food crop since 1650.
  • Crop could be grown alone and in sufficient quantity
  • Water mould caused the potato blight
relief efforts
Relief Efforts
  • Soup Act; Summer of 1847
  • Over 3 million people fed by government soup kitchens.
  • Private organizations and donations offered by Quakers.
the aftermath
The Aftermath
  • Hostilities and increased tensions between England and Ireland
  • By 1870, railway systems prevented a second economic devastation through importation
  • The Great Famine is remembered in memorials across Ireland
roger casement14
Roger Casement
  • September 1st 1864- August 3rd 1916
  • Who was he?
  • British Diplomat
  • Poet
  • Irish Revolutionary/ Nationalist
  • A gay Catholic
casement
Casement
  • He formed the Irish Nationalist Volunteers, (nationalist organization) hoped to gain support from Germany to assistance in Ireland’s independence from Britain.
  • Worked with Germany and Irish nationalist in planning the Dublin Easter Rising of 1916.
  • Hanged in the mid-1916 by the British for alleged treason, sabotage and espionage against the crown.
  • A song was made after him, entitled “Roger Casement”
sinn fein 1905

Sinn Fein (1905)

Sandy

Elaine

Lexi

sinn fein conception
Sinn Fein Conception
  • Established November 28, 1905 as nationalist political group
  • Sinn Fein literal meaning is “us” or “ourselves alone” – Irish problems solved by Irish people
  • Post Easter Rising (1916) reorganized by Michael Collins as a militant republican party
sinn fein historically
Sinn Fein Historically
  • Members did not want to participate in British parliament
  • Refused to accept 73 seats in Westminster to represent Ireland
  • Instead Michael Collins, Sinn Fein leader, established the Dail Eireann parliament, which declared Ireland an independent republic
sinn fein today
Sinn Fein Today
  • Accused of becoming a terrorist group, often connected with violence and the IRA
  • Sinn Fein still striving for a nationalist organization, wanting Ireland to become united as a country
  • Changed from historical militant group to a political force movement during 1980’s
  • Currently speaking against being associated with the IRA
  • Today the Sinn Fein and IRA have the same objective, both want Ireland becoming a united and independent country
  • Sinn Fein leading peaceful hunger strikes and establishing universities
playboy riots22

Playboy Riots

January 1907

Tim Blain

Kylie McGowan

Dennis Kilday

J.M. Synge

A poster for the opening run at the Abbey Theatre. Synge's In the Shadow of the Glen features.

the playboy riots
The Playboy Riots
  • The Playboy Riots occurred in January 1907 during and following the opening performance of The Playboy of the Western World, controversial Irish play by John Millington Synge. (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Playboy_Riots)
  • This play is a comedy about differing identities, family relations, and love. The play took place in western Ireland during a time where violence was common and respected and drinking was the number one pastime.
  • In the folklore of the playboy riots, the final straw for the audience was the reference by Christy Mahon to a drift of females standing in their shifts (night-dresses). The audience rioted at this point, and subsequent performances were drowned out by booing audience that had been whipped up by critics. The play induced anger because it reinforced negative stereotypes., and was considered slander of Irelands womanhood. (www.achill247.com/writers/jmsynge6.html)
john millington synge
John Millington Synge
  • In a letter to his friend following the riots he fought back against his critics saying “the ignorance and treachery of some of the attacks upon me have rather disgusted me with the middle class Irish Catholic. As you know I have the wildest admiration for the Irish peasants, and for Irish men…but between the two there’s an ungodly ruck of fat-faced sweaty-headed swine…”
  • Despite the controversy caused by the Playboy, J.M. Synge influenced the Irish literary and cultural community, inspiring Paul Henry and Ernie O’Malley and Graham Green
  • March 24 1909 – John Millington Synge, author and playwright, dies in Dublin aged 38.
lauri robison kristin eisenach

Easter RisingApril 24, 1916“The Easter Rising was a complete failure, yet without it Ireland might never have been free of English Rule” - Sean O’Faolain

Lauri Robison

Kristin Eisenach

events of the easter rising
Events of the Easter Rising
  • The Irish Citizen Army and volunteers fought for Irish independence from Britain by occupying strategic buildings in Dublin including the General Post Office (GPO), Jacob’s Factory, South Dublin Union, St. Stephan’s Green. The General Post Office became the headquarters of the Irish Citizen Army.
  • After obtaining these buildings the leaders of the movement signed and proclaimed Irish Independence. The signers were Thomas J. Clarke, Sean MacDiarmada, Thomas MacDonagh, P.H. Pearse, Eamonn Ceannt, James Connolly, Joseph Plunkett.
    • Irish Proclamation of Independence
  • In response, the British proclaimed martial law against the Irish, which lead to bloody street fighting.
  • After the initial successes of Irish rebels, the British sent in reinforcements. By the end of the week (April 28), 18,000-20,000 British troops fought against approximately 1,600 Irish rebels.
  • By the end of the week, the Easter Rising, was basically put-down.
aftermath of easter rising
Aftermath of Easter Rising
  • Leaders of the Rising were court-martialed and 15 were sentenced to death by firing squad.
  • 450 people were killed, including 254 civilians.

“The Rising was over, but it was not over. It has been called 'the triumph of failure' because it made martyrs of its leaders and their deaths revived the spirit of republican separatism.”

black and tans 1920 21
Black and Tans 1920-21
  • Used by British to suppress revolution in Ireland, i.e. the IRA and Sinn Féin.
slide31
The nickname came from their uniforms: surplus WWI khaki pants and blue tunics.
  • They did not receive much funding (for supplies and operations) or any police training.
  • However, incentive to join was good wages
  • They were more like thugs, gaining a reputation for brute force.
slide32
The most infamous attack on the public came in November 1920. Many people had packed into Croke Park, Dublin, to watch a football match. In retaliation for the murder of fourteen undercover detectives  by the IRA, the Black and Tans opened fire on the crowd, killing twelve people.
  • The Black and Tans did not stop the IRA, but, in effect fueled public support for the IRA movement.
troubles 1968 1999 julie and tiffanie

Troubles (1968-1999)Julie and Tiffanie

The Troubles were a series of disputes between Northern Ireland's Unionist community and Nationalist community.

The period originated as a result of the centuries-long debate over whether Ireland, or part of Ireland, should be part of the United Kingdom.

troubles continued
Troubles continued
  • Paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland are widely described in the Northern Ireland media and society as terrorist organizations.
bloody sunday 1972
Bloody Sunday (1972)
  • Bloody Sunday was one of the key events during the Troubles.
  • Soldiers from the British Army's 1st Parachute Regiment opened fire on unarmed and peaceful civilians in the Bogside, Derry, Ireland.
  • 14 people were killed and 13 others wounded.
  • Many witnesses, including bystanders and journalists, claim that those shot at were all unarmed.
irish organisations

Irish Organisations

Ben O’Farrell and Mary Poellinger

fenians
Fenians
  • from Wikipedia.org:
  • A “fenian” is a Irish nationalist who espouses violence against British rule.
  • The word comes from “Na Fianna Éireann” from Celtic mythology, a band of warriors formed to protect Ireland.
  • “Fenian” is the sole epitaph on the headstone of Thomas J. Clarke, executed after the Easter Rising.
slide40
Loyalists

“Loyalists” in Northern Ireland opposed Catholic Emancipation in the 1790s.

Ulster Volunteers

Loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland who oppose the effort toward a united Ireland.

Founded in 1966.

blueshirts
Blueshirts
  • A nickname for the Army Comrades Association, now known as the National Guard. The nickname implies fascist leanings.
  • The group was founded in the 1930s by former IRA leader Eoin O’Duffy to protect political parties from IRA attack.
  • They adopted fascist accoutrement, not ideology.
irish volunteers
Irish Volunteers
  • A “paramilitary organisation established by Irish nationalists in 1913 to help enforce the imminent Home Rule Act.”
  • The Home Rule Act 1914 gave Ireland national self-government.
irish citizens army ica
Irish Citizens Army, ICA
  • “A small group of trained volunteers established in Dublin for the defence of workers’ demontrations from the police.”
  • Founded in 1913.
irish republican army ira
Irish Republican Army, IRA
  • “A self-proclaimed Army of the ‘Irish Republic’ that fought against British rule in 1916 – 1921.”
  • Fought in the Irish War of Independence.
  • Split into two wings in 1969, the Official IRA and the Provisional IRA, that is more militant.
  • Had armed campaigns against the British.
  • Came from Irish Volunteers.
wild geese46
Wild Geese
  • Young men of Ireland who left their native land for service in the armies of Europe and America
  • All of the men and women who have left and will leave Ireland for that which they cannot achieve at home are also included