H y d r o c a r b o n s. Chapter 8:. What is carbon chemistry?. Compounds containing Carbon make up 90% of all chemicals and form the basis of living things Organic chemistry is the study of Carbon compounds. How does Carbon form so many compounds?.
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The electronic configuration of carbon is 1s22s22p2.
It can form a wide variety of compounds because:
We use structural formulas to represent hydrocarbons
You will notice that each carbon atom:
When we come to draw a structural formula for C4H10, however, there are two possible arrangements that satisfy the bonding requirements of each of the four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms
These two compounds are structural isomers. That means that they have the same molecular formula (C4H10) but a different
arrangement of their atoms.
Structural isomers have similar chemical properties but differ in some physical properties such as melting and boiling temp.
As molecules become larger, the number of possible arrangements of atoms increases rapidly.
The alkanes are known as saturated hydrocarbons.
Because there are only single bonds between carbon atoms, they are ‘saturated’ with hydrogen atoms.
Carbon and hydrogen can also form families of compounds in which there are double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. These compounds are unsaturated as they do not contain the maximum number of H atoms.
Alkanes use the prefix relevant to the number of Carbons, and ends in “ane”.
Four things you may be asked for:
The alkenes form a new homologous series. Their members differ by -CH2- and contain a single double bond between two carbon atoms and share similar chemical properties.
Alkenes are unsaturated as they contain less than the maximum amount of Hydrogens possible. They are named using the same prefix and end in “ene”.
Isomers exist in Alkenes as well. Isomers can be branched, straight chain or even a different position of the double bond.
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