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Basic Physical Demands Scaling. Deborah Lechner, PT, MS. Scales Vary by Category of Physical Demands. Categories/ Dimensions. Examples. Manual Materials Handling Position Tolerance (static postures) Mobility/Movement and Repetitive Motions Hand Function Balance Coordination.

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basic physical demands scaling

Basic Physical Demands Scaling

Deborah Lechner, PT, MS

scales vary by category of physical demands
Scales Vary by Category of Physical Demands

Categories/ Dimensions

Examples

Manual Materials Handling

Position Tolerance (static postures)

Mobility/Movement and Repetitive Motions

Hand Function

Balance

Coordination

Lift, carry, push, pull

Sit, stand, stoop, crouch, reach, kneel

Walk, crawl, climb, stoop, crouch, reach

Handling, fingering, gripping

Static, dynamic

Bilateral, eye-hand-foot, eye-hand, eye-foot

possible scales for physical demands
Possible Scales for Physical Demands
  • Manual Materials Handling
    • Weight/force handled (lbs/N)
    • Size and shape of object
    • Handles vs. Without
    • Bilateral vs. Unilateral
    • Vertical height of lift
    • Distance of lift
manual materials handling
Manual Materials Handling
  • Can occur in any position & combined with a variety trunk movement (i.e. bend and rotate while lifting)
    • Lift/Lower – height, position of load and relationship to body – horizontal distance from load
      • Unilateral
      • Bilateral
    • Carry
      • Unilateral
      • Bilateral
    • Push/Pull
      • Unilateral
      • Bilateral
      • While whole body is moving
possible scales for physical demands5
Possible Scales for Physical Demands

Non-Materials Handling

  • Posture/Positions maintained
    • Duration (hr, min, sec, % day)
    • Continuous duration (hr, min, sec)
    • Intensity (degrees of position, range of motion, WNL, min, moderate, severe)
    • Balanced/Symmetrical
  • Mobility/Ambulation (walk, crawl, climb, run)
    • Distance
    • Repetitions
    • Speed
    • Duration (% of day)
possible scales for physical demands6
Possible Scales for Physical Demands

Non-Materials handling (cont’d)

  • Repetitive movements (squatting, reaching, stooping)
    • Repetitions
    • Frequency
    • Cycle time
    • Duration (% of day)
    • Continuous duration
    • Intensity (degrees of position, range of motion, WNL, min, moderate, severe)
    • Balanced/Symmetrical
scales for balance
Scales for Balance
  • Dynamic vs. static
  • Duration (% of job required)
  • Surface Type
    • Even surface
    • Uneven surface
    • Climbing (stairs, ladders, poles)
    • Beam and scaffolding/narrow ledges
  • Surface Conditions
    • Wet vs. dry
    • Ice, snow
    • Oil
possible scales for hand function
Possible Scales for Hand Function
  • Duration
  • Repetition
  • Cycle time
  • Grip strength (lbs)
  • Whole hand vs. individual finger motion
  • One-handed vs. two-handed
  • Level of dexterity/coordination/speed
combined postures vs individual joint positions
Combined Postures vs. Individual Joint Positions
  • Squat/crouching

vs

  • Spine flexion
  • Hip flexion
  • Knee flexion
  • Ankle dorsiflexion
  • Ability to change position i.e. driving for required distance before stopping, viewing computer monitor and using keyboard for specific periods of time without rest
simultaneous motion
Simultaneous Motion
  • Motions/Positions happen simultaneously – i.e. Squat while looking down and reaching while handling. Or sitting on window sill while leaning, holding himself with one arm and reaching with another.
    • Neck
    • Trunk
    • Upper extremities
      • Shoulder
      • Elbow
      • Hands
    • Lower extremities
      • Hips
      • Knees
      • Ankles
correlation to tasks
Correlation to Tasks
  • Housekeeping (Light to Heavy)

Wet mopping the floor

Cleaning patient rooms after discharge

    • Carpenter (Light to V Heavy)

Erects framework for structures and lays subflooring

Builds stairs and lays out and installs partitions and cabinet work.

    • Physical Demands:
      • Walking
      • Lifting
      • Pushing
      • Pulling
  • Joint Angle Excursions
    • Flexion, Extension, rotation, abduction, adduction
    • Neutral vs. Non-Neutral
    • Joint angle excursions
how much detail
How much detail????
  • Challenge to balance level of detail vs. feasibility of data collection
current dot mmh scaling
Current DOT MMH Scaling
  • Defined in DOT, SCO, & COJ
  • Classifies manual materials handling demands:

Occasional Frequent (50%) Constant (20%)

    • Very Heavy > 100 lb. > 50 lb > 20 lb
    • Heavy 51 - 100 lb. 25 – 50 lb 10 – 20 lb
    • Medium 21 - 50 lb. 10 -25 1 - 10
    • Light 11-20 lb. 1 - 10 *
    • Sedentary 1 -10 lb. * *

* negligible weight

current dot duration scaling
Current DOT Duration Scaling
  • Non-materials handling tasks classified according to duration of demand within the work day
    • Constantly 2/3 to the full day
    • Frequently 1/3 to 2/3 of day
    • Occasionally up to 1/3 of day
    • Never not required
current dot dexterity coordination scaling
Current DOT Dexterity & Coordination Scaling
  • Dexterity Demands
    • Classified as an aptitude by the DOT
    • Rated on a 1 -5 scale
      • 1 = top 10% of population
      • 2 = highest 1/3, exclusive of top 10%
      • 3 = middle 1/3
      • 4 = lowest 1/3, exclusive of bottom 10%
      • 5 = lowest 10% of population
  • Grip Strength not addressed
  • Keyboarding not addressed
  • Duration address through C,F,O,N