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Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport. Basic Concepts of Physical Education. Daryl Siedentop. Chapter 10. Discussion Questions. To what extent was your school program rooted in the education- through-the-physical philosophy? What were its main features?.

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Basic Concepts of Physical Education


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    1. Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Basic Concepts of Physical Education Daryl Siedentop Chapter 10

    2. Discussion Questions To what extent was your school program rooted in the education- through-the-physical philosophy? What were its main features?

    3. Discussion Questions Is the multi-activity approach useful? Can any real objectives be accomplished with short-term units? Is the variety engendered by this approach appropriate?

    4. Discussion Questions Which of the newer curriculum models appeals to you? Which least appeals to you?

    5. Discussion Questions What are the requirements for physical education in your (home) state? Did you school’s program exceed them?

    6. Discussion Questions What was physical education like in your high school? Were the classes Co-ed? Did boys or girls like or dislike it equally?

    7. Discussion Questions What kind of physical education experience would adolescents have to have in order to influence their lifestyle choices about PA and health?

    8. Discussion Questions What do you believe should be the central focus of physical education at elementary-school, middle-school, and high-school levels? What would be your definition of physical education that accurately reflects that perspective?

    9. Introductory points • Physical education has been a school • subject for over a century. • Attention to this subject was most • prominent fitness levels of youth and • military were found to be below par. • The current obesity epidemic in youth has • renewed interest in school programs.

    10. Introductory points (Cont’d.) • At the same time, school Physical • Education has been squeezed in favor of • time spent on academic subjects (NCLB ) So . . . what defines a physical education program? a. Content to be learned (i.e. curricular choices) b. Manner in which it is taught (i.e. the pedagogy)

    11. The Primary 20th Century Influences on Modern Physical Education • Most dominant influence: • “Education-through-the-physical “ • Major advocate: Clarke Hetherington • A.K.A. the “New Physical Education” • Consistent with Dewey’s progressive • education theory (see also Box 10.1).

    12. The Primary 20th Century Influences on Modern Physical Education (Cont’d.) • Most dominant influence: • Hetherington’s main four foci: 1. Organic Education 2. Psychomotor Education 3. Character Education 4. Intellectual Education

    13. The Primary 20th Century Influences on Modern Physical Education (Cont’d.) • Hetherington’s foci resulted in development • of: • Program objectives • Set lesson structures • Set lesson plans • Multiactivity curriculum was a natural • outgrowth > Most dominant program • approach even today.

    14. The Primary 20th Century Influences on Modern Physical Education (Cont’d.) • 1971: AAHPERD launches PEPI project. http://www.aahperd.org/ • Aimed at informing public about • objectives of school physical education: • Knowledge and skills about body • and how it functions. 2. Is health insurance. 3. Contribution to academic achievement. 4. Development of positive self-concept. 5. Attaining social skills.

    15. NASPE’s Move Toward National Goals & Standards • 1990s: First national content standards • drafted (see Box 10.2 for current edition). • http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/cwp/view.asp?a=2618&q=320886 • Aimed at reaching national consensus on • what constitutes: • “ A physically educated person” • http://www.aahperd.org/naspe/

    16. NASPE’s Move Toward National Goals & Standards • A Physically Educated Person: • Competent in motor skills and movement patterns . . . • Understands movement concepts, principles, strategies, tactics . . . • Participates regularly in PA . . . • Achieves & maintains health-enhancing level of fitness . . . • Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior . . . • Values PA for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction . . .

    17. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences What do you believe should be taught, and how should it be delivered? Answers to this ??? Says a lot about your values & philosophy about teaching physical education . . .

    18. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) What constitutes a “Curriculum?” A sequence of activities . . . from a particular instructional perspective . . . leading to a set of outcomes . . . that reflect a set of values

    19. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Prominent C & I Models: • Skill Themes • Health-related Physical Education • Academic Integration • Personal & Social Responsibility • Sport Education • Adventure Education • Teaching Games • Eclectic

    20. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Skill Themes Model • Evolved from Movement Education. • British influence / Rudolph Laban. • US advocates: Graham, Holt-Hale & • Parker. • Organized around three areas: Gymnastics, • Dance , and Games. • Focus on teaching about movement concepts (e.g. force, location, direction, levels, pathways).

    21. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Skill Themes Model (cont’d.) • Skill Themes: Movements fundamental to later success in more complex activities. • Initially, skills (see Box 10.4) are taught one at a time. • Minimal focus on competition. • Focus on continuous activity (ensuring ample MVPA). • Skill development phases: Pre-Control, Control, • Combination, Proficiency.

    22. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Health-related Physical Education Model • Primary goal: Develop and value a physically active lifestyle. • Central indicator : MVPA. • Teacher s’ role is to promote PA within and beyond regular classes.

    23. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Health-related Physical Education Model (cont’d.) • Focus on self-management skills: Planning, Goal setting, Self-Monitoring, Self-reinforcement, resisting negative influences. • Based on ecological approach (multiple levels of influence and environment) in shaping PA opportunity.

    24. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Health-related Physical Education Model (cont’d.) • Several programs are available: SPARK, M-SPAN, PEforLife, and Take10! • High school programs now often mirror health clubs in surrounding community. • http://www.sparkpe.org • http://www.pe4life.org • http://www.take10.net

    25. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Academic Integration Model • Influenced by emergency of Kinesiology’s sub-disciplines. • Emphasizes teaching of disciplinary knowledge through activity. • AAHPERD published “Basic Stuff” book series. • Outgrowth: Integration with classroom subjects.

    26. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Academic Integration Model (cont’d.) • Valued at “magnet schools.” • Prominence has dwindled (NCLB). • Quite popular in Australia’s high schools (Mcdonald & Leitch, 1994).

    27. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Personal & Social Responsibility Model • Rooted in Humanistic Education movement. • Focus on personal growth and social responsibility skills. • Lead advocate: • Donald Hellison.

    28. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Personal & Social Responsibility Model (cont’d.) • Physical education program is used as the medium to assist youth in learning to function effectively and more positively in a complex environment . • Prominent in urban • schools.

    29. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Personal & Social Responsibility Model (cont’d.) • Popular in ES’s to help develop responsibility skills in children (via “levels of responsibility “ charts) • No prescription for particular activities . . . • Instead , the focus is on moving students to higher levels of responsibility (see Box 10.5).

    30. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Sport Education Model • Creation of more authentic, and developmentally appropriate sport , fitness and dance experiences. • Based on “Play Education” (Siedentop, 1980). • Maintains key characteristics of sport: Seasons, Affiliation, Competition, Records, Festivity, & Culminating Events.

    31. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Sport Education Model (cont’d.) • Gradually ,students are offered more responsibility and ownership to help design and conduct “real” sport seasons. • Students learn about roles other than just player (e.g. Coach, Manager, Statistician, Publicist, Scout etc.) • Use of “Duty Teams”: Referees, scorekeepers.

    32. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Sport Education Model (cont’d.) • Core assumption: Good competition is fun and educational. • Balanced teams compete • in modified game formats. • Can be used starting at grade 3. • Extensive research support has emerged.

    33. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Sport Education Model (cont’d.) • Extensive research support has emerged . • Widely used in New Zealand, Australia, England, Korea and Japan. • Creates more equitable • environment for especially • lower-skilled and • non-participating students.

    34. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Adventure Education Model • Main influences: • 1. Risk activities have educational potential. • 2. Public interest in outdoor recreation. • Activities include backpacking, • kayaking, climbing, caving, • high-ropes courses, team-based • problem-solving tasks.

    35. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Adventure Education Model (cont’d.) • Two sets of goals: • 1. Gain skill, participate safely, and gain satisfaction. • 2. Learn to problem solve, improve self-concept, and • personal growth (through more adventure-type and • higher risk activities) • Typically conducted in • small group contexts.

    36. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Adventure Education Model (cont’d.) • Can be taught in the outdoors AND school campuses (e.g. orienteering). • “Project Adventure” - resource for programmatic materials, equipment and training resources www.pa.org

    37. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Adventure Education Model (cont’d.) • Requires more time and extensive planning. • Safety is a paramount concern. • Given higher risks, teachers must • have strong interaction and support • skills AND content knowledge.

    38. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Teaching Games Model • 1986: Bunker, Thorpe & Almond: “Rethinking Games Teaching.” • Questioned traditional approaches to teaching games: “technique practice in isolation followed by game play.” • Coined “Teaching Games for Understanding” (TGfU) (a.k.a. “Tactical Games approach”).

    39. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Teaching Games Model (cont’d.) • Increased emphasis on teaching about tactical aspects of game play. • Skills and tactics are practiced in modified game contexts. • Alan Launder (2001) : • Technique + Tactics = “Game Sense.”

    40. Important Curriculum and Instruction Influences (Cont’d.) Eclectic Model • Historically, US teachers largely have been free to choose “what“ and “how“ to teach. • Reflects the dominance of the multi-activity model. • Short units , wide variety of content, modest amounts of instruction, less chance of developing sufficient competence.

    41. What is the Subject Matter of Physical Education The many C & I models available make a tight definition difficult . . . Few activities are excluded . . . (almost anything goes!) Many may not be useful or defensible. If it does encompass everything, can it stand for something specific & important?

    42. Physical Education for Students w. Disabilities • Emerged primarily as a consequence of: • 1. 1917 polio epidemic: “Corrective Physical Education” • 2. WW II personnel rehabilitation. • 1960’s: APE & Special Olympics emerge. • Aimed at increasing opportunity for sport • and recreation

    43. Physical Education for Students w. Disabilities (Cont’d.) • Importance of extensive Federal legislation. • PL 94-142: Requires access to PE and • intramurals for all students w. special needs • http://www.scn.org/~bk269/94-142.html • “Least Restrictive Environment” (LRE) • (placement) • “Inclusion” (provision of support services)

    44. Physical Education for Students w. Disabilities (Cont’d.) • Inclusion advocates: Segregation is • inherently unequal/discriminatory. • Three main program types: Adapted: activities are modified to enable successful participation. Corrective: Rehabilitation of postural and body-mechanics deficiencies. Developmental: Basic fitness and skill development.

    45. Physical Education for Students w. Disabilities (Cont’d.) • “Adapted Physical Activity” encompasses The profession. The inter-disciplinary field of study. The delivery of services . • Main area within Teacher preparation programs. AAHPERD (Adapted Physical Activity Council) • Primary Research Journal: APAQ

    46. State Requirements for Physical Education • No federal requirements, left up to the states http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/cwp/view.asp?a=2618&q=320980 • States may have minimal standards • States often leave oversight to districts • Healthy People 2010 includes national targets • specific to physical education programs

    47. State Requirements for Physical Education (Cont’d.) • Healthy People 2010’S Physical Education • Objectives: Increase the proportion of . . . 1. nation’s public and private schools that require daily physical education. 2. adolescents who participate in daily school physical education. 3. adolescents who spend at least 50% of school physical education lessons being physically active at least at moderate levels of intensity. http://www.healthypeople.gov/

    48. State Requirements for Physical Education (Cont’d.) • Extensive variance in state requirements: • Examples: • 35 states mandate Elem. Physical education. • HS requirements range from 7 semesters (IL) to 0 req. (OK). • 16 states allows exemptions (e.g. band, ROTC, athletics). • 22 states require grades be reported to parents. • 16 states require some type of assessment.

    49. State Requirements for Physical Education (Cont’d.) • Given the overweight/obesity trends. . . • Examples of new state requirements in CA: • Increased Minutes of physical education per week. • Programs must be delivered by licensed specialists. • No exemptions allowed via Band, ROTC and so on. • Annual fitness tests. • Increased funding to hire new licensed teachers.

    50. State Requirements for Physical Education (Cont’d.) • The missing piece!: • Lack of state oversight/accountability . . . • Hence, CA school districts can still deviate from/ignore state mandates.