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On your horizon. Research Assignment Due Monday night Worth 15 pts. Will help you develop your speech Exam 2 Wednesday Review materials are up online 30% Short answer (Group) and 70% Multiple Choice Next Friday: Workshop for first 3 days of speakers. From “Much Ado About Nothing”.

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on your horizon
On your horizon
  • Research Assignment
    • Due Monday night
    • Worth 15 pts.
    • Will help you develop your speech
  • Exam 2 Wednesday
    • Review materials are up online
    • 30% Short answer (Group) and 70% Multiple Choice
  • Next Friday: Workshop for first 3 days of speakers
from much ado about nothing

From “Much Ado About Nothing”


“Marry, sir, they have committed false report;

moreover, they have spoken untruths;

secondarily, they are slanders; sixth and

lastly, they have belied a lady; thirdly,

They have verified unjust things; and, to

conclude, they are lying knaves.”

supporting your ideas
Supporting your ideas
  • Use a SET of Evidence
  • Statistics
  • Examples
  • Testimony
  • Adds logos
  • If you can measure it you feel like you know it
evaluating statistics
Evaluating Statistics
  • Representative
  • Reliability of sources
  • Mean (the average)
  • Median (the middle number)
  • According to 2009-10 data collected by USA Today:
  • Mean (average) Salary: $ 1,931,518
  • Median Salary: $812,500
  • Lowest: $390,980
  • Highest: 16+ million
deploying statistics
Deploying Statistics
  • Identify sources
  • Use sparingly
  • Round off
  • Use visual aids
  • Explain your stats:
    • interpret
    • relate
  • Brief, extended, or hypothetical
  • Adds Pathos
  • Strongest impact when vivid and well delivered
  • Strongest as evidence when linked with statistics
  • Peer or Expert
  • Adds Ethos
quiz 4 question 1
Quiz 4 Question 1

According to The New York Times Almanac, California has the largest Native-American population of any state in the union: 421,346. Arizona is second with 294,118; and Oklahoma is third with 287,124.

1. What kind of supporting material is this and how could better follow the rules for this kind of material?

quiz 4 question 2
Quiz 4 Question 2

In the words of one expert, “The state education budget has been cut so much in recent years that any further cuts will do irreparable harm to our schools and the children they serve.”

2. What kind of supporting material is this and how could better follow the rules for this kind of material?


Factory Farms

100,000 cattle

20 trillion dollars
20 Trillion Dollars
  • 570 billion bags of hamburger substitute
  • 700 students at 1 bag/week
  • 15 million years
justin s famous chili
Justin’s Famous Chili
  • $20 for ingredients
  • 8 servings
  • $20 / 8 = $2.50 per serving
quiz 4 question 3
Quiz 4 Question 3

What is the Pattern of Organization for each of these speeches?


I. Overconsumption of meat causes several problems in the United States

II. Cutting meat out of your diet just one day a week can have a significant impact not only on your personal health, but on the environment as well.


I. Overcrowded animal shelters and terrible conditions at puppy mills cause serious harm to animals.

II. You can help reduce this problem by adopting a pet from a shelter.

III. An adopted pet will bring you many benefits.

read the following passage outloud
Read the following passage outloud.





reasoning toulmin model
Reasoning: Toulmin Model




pennies speech example
Pennies Speech Example
  • We eliminated the half penny in 1857 without harmful effect, so we can safely eliminate the penny today.

We can safely eliminate the penny.

We eliminated the half penny in 1857 without harm.

The cases compared are Similar

reasoning analogy
Reasoning: Analogy
  • Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second.
  • Sample Analogy in Debate
reasoning analogy24
Reasoning: Analogy

Institutions like Harvard now have meatless days.

You can adopt meatless Monday

The cases compared are Similar

reasoning analogy25
Reasoning: Analogy
  • Figurative
    • Students are more like oysters than sausages. The job of teaching is not to stuff them and then seal them up, but to help them open and reveal the riches within. (Sydney J. Harris, "What True Education Should Do," 1964)
  • Literal
    • Socialized medicine works in Canada, so socialized medicine will work in the U.S.
strong or weak analogies
Strong or Weak Analogies?
  • A ban on all alcohol use in the dorms will work at ISU because such a ban worked at Luther College.
  • We praise the lives of soldiers who sacrificed their lives for the sake of others, why can’t we celebrate embryos sacrificed in order to save the lives of others?
reasoning specific i nstances
Reasoning: Specific Instances
  • Moves from particular facts to general conclusions
  • Surveys and studies
  • Neilson ratings and representative samples
reasoning specific instances
Reasoning: Specific Instances
    • UN group proves impact on greenhouse gases
    • Humane Society article: 2/3 of ag land for animal support
    • Manure from feedlots hurts groundwater
  • Meat production hurts the environment
reasoning specific instances29
Reasoning: Specific Instances

1.impact on greenhouse gases

2. Ag land for animal support

3. Manure makes runoff

Meat production hurts the environment

The generalization is supported (there are enough specific instances; the instances are representative; etc.)

reasoning specific instances30
Reasoning: Specific Instances
  • my friends and I watched violent cartoons and aren’t violent people, so . . . .
  • This is a
  • Hasty Generalization
reasoning causal arguments
Reasoning: Causal Arguments
  • The most challenging of the types of reasoning.
  • We can’t see causal relationships, we can only infer them.
  • Examples
    • “cigarettes cause lung cancer”
    • “Human beings are causing

global climate change”

reasoning causal arguments32
Reasoning: Causal Arguments

Serious negative health complications arise.

Over-eating meat leads to obesity.

British Journal of Nutrition;

(A happens before B;

A leads to B repeatedly; causal connection makes sense)

reasoning causal arguments33
Reasoning: Causal Arguments
  • Fallacies and Problems
  • “post hoc ergo propter hoc”
    • “after this therefore because of this”
    • confusing a relationship in time with cause and effect
reasoning causal arguments34
Reasoning: Causal Arguments
  • Fallacies and Problems
  • multiple causation
    • rainforest destruction is the cause of global warming
    • T.V. is responsible for school violence
  • correlation vs. causation
tips for success in causal reasoning
Tips for success in causal reasoning.
  • use causal chains
  • use testimony of experts
  • combine them with specific instances
quiz 4 questions 4 and 5
Quiz 4 Questions 4 and 5

4. What kind of reasoning is used below? Is it strong or weak? Why?

“According to a study by the American Medical Association, men with bald spots have three times the risk of heart attack as men with a full head of hair. Strange as it may seem, it looks as if baldness is a cause of heart attacks.”

5. What kind of reasoning is used below? Is it strong or weak? Why?

“Raising a child is just like having a pet—you need to feed it, play with it, train it and everything will be fine.”

the building blocks
The Building Blocks
  • Strong Analysis: Problem, Plan, Practicality
  • Evidence / Supporting Material using Ethos, Logos and Pathos
    • Statistics, Examples, Testimony
  • Reasoning
    • Principle
    • Specific Instances [generalization]
    • Analogy
    • Causal
  • Audience Connection—
    • With Content: Mental Dialogue
    • With Structure
    • With Delivery
summary of all methods
Summary of all methods


  • Expert testimony
  • Personal competence
  • Common ground
  • Deliver with conviction


  • Statistics
  • Specific instances
  • Causal
  • Analogical
  • Pathos
  • Examples
  • Emotional language
  • Deliver with conviction