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Gregory C. Dixon gdixon@westga.edu Office: Pafford 125 Phone: 678-839-4992. XIDS2301 Introduction to Global Studies. Who am I?. Dr. Gregory C. Dixon Specialty – International Relations Areas of interest / research: International Institutions Conflict Management

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gregory c dixon gdixon@westga edu office pafford 125 phone 678 839 4992
Gregory C. Dixon

gdixon@westga.edu

Office: Pafford 125

Phone: 678-839-4992

XIDS2301Introduction to Global Studies
who am i
Who am I?
  • Dr. Gregory C. Dixon
  • Specialty – International Relations
  • Areas of interest / research:
    • International Institutions
    • Conflict Management
    • Globalization and Global Governance
office hours and contact
Office Hours and Contact
  • Office: Pafford 125
  • Office Hours:
    • Before class (aprox. 11:45 – class)
    • After class (as needed)
    • and by appointment
  • Email: gdixon@westga.edu
online content
Online Content
  • http://www.westga.edu/~gdixon
    • Under “current courses” pick XIDS2301
  • CourseDen
    • All course information
    • Electronic Submission of Assignments
learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes
  • Analyze the interconnected nature of the world of the 21st century
  • Assess the origins of globalization in its modern form in historical context
  • Assess the major themes of inquiry and the broad general approaches to the study of these themes
  • Develop an understanding of the vocabulary used in discussing issues related to global studies
  • Analyze the ideas of the course and demonstrate an understanding of the material in writing
assignments
Assignments
  • Commentary Papers (4)20% each
  • Class Participation 20%
commentary papers
Commentary Papers
  • Weekly response papers
  • A written response to a selection from the Annual Editions text
    • Apply material from the broader course
    • Demonstrate critical thinking and analytical skills
  • Answers should be 2 - 4 single spaced pages
grading
Grading
  • 90% and up = A
  • 80 – 89% = B
  • 70 – 79% = C
  • 60 – 69% = D
  • 59% and below = F
  • No curves or mathematical adjustments will be applied to the grades
assumption of adulthood
Assumption of Adulthood
  • All students are assumed to be adults
  • You are expected to familiarize yourself with the requirements of the course
  • You are expected to meet the requirements of the course
  • It is expected that you will do the required reading for the course.
  • It is expected that you will complete all required assignments.
class participation
Class Participation
  • Daily discussion
  • Discussion will be assigned readings in the course
  • All students are expected to do the daily readings
late or missed assignments
Late or Missed Assignments
  • Late assignments will suffer a penalty of one letter grade for each business day late
  • The commentary papers are take-home, so extensions will be extremely rare
  • Absolutely no extensions will be given for the final commentary paper due date
special needs
Special Needs
  • Students with special needs as identified by the University will be accommodated in accordance with University policy
attendance
Attendance
  • Attendance will not be taken and is not required as part of the course grade
  • Attendance is vital
  • Missing lectures may significantly reduce their chances of passing the course
  • It is the responsibility of the student to get the notes from that day of class from another student in the class
acts of the gods
Acts of the Gods
  • On very rare occasions truly terrible things happen
  • If such an event happens, don't wait until the last day of the class to deal with it
email privacy
Email & Privacy
  • Nothing related to grades, exams, or any other course information specific to a student will be discussed via regular email - period
  • Grades and related information will only be discussed via one of these methods:
    • In person during office hours or after class
    • Via the CourseDen email system
classroom decorum
Classroom Decorum
  • Please arrive on time
  • Please turn off any device that makes noise
  • Please do not read the newspaper, sleep, etc. during the class time
  • Mutual respect and politeness is required in the classroom at all times
  • Violations of appropriate classroom decorum will result in penalties
academic honesty
Academic Honesty
  • All students are required to be aware of the University rules regarding academic honesty.
  • Cheating, fabrication, and/or plagiarism of any kind will not be tolerated.
  • Any student caught committing any violation of the Honor Code on any assignment will receive an F in the course and will be reported to the University for further action as per University policy
  • The professor reserves the right to seek the harshest possible penalty for any and all violations regardless of the value of the individual assignment
academic honesty1
Academic Honesty
  • If you are unsure as to what constitutes academic dishonesty, please consult the University of West Georgia Student Handbook
  • Ignorance of the Code will not be accepted as an excuse for violations of it
  • Many things which are perfectly acceptable in high school are considered cheating in college
  • If you have a question about cheating, ask, don’t just assume that you are ok
globalization
Globalization
  • While the term globalization is new, the phenomenon is not
  • Human interconnectedness
  • Speed and frequency of connections is accelerating
  • Globalization as the interconnection of human activity across the world
  • Globalization is many things to different people
global studies
Global Studies
  • Interdisciplinary understanding of the world
  • Draws ideas and issues from a wide range of sources
  • Focus on understanding interconnections between the actors and structures in the world today
the odd nature of history
The Odd Nature of History
  • We think of history as deterministic
    • We are where we are
    • The world of today was destined to be
  • This is wrong
    • Chance plays a major role
    • Randomness happens
  • This is a good thing
    • Individuals can play a big role
why history
Why History?
  • To understand today’s world we need to see where it came from
  • History sets the context
  • History says how we got here
  • History leaves its mark
globalization of humanity
Globalization of Humanity
  • Modern humans emerge roughly 200,000 years ago
  • We spread from Africa to cover the whole world by 12,000 years ago at the latest
  • As we develop new tools, these spread through networks of human contact
example neolithic revolution
Example: Neolithic Revolution
  • The development of agriculture
  • Takes place in a few isolated areas
  • Changes our basic way of life
  • Once discovered, it spreads widely
  • Creates the foundation of civilization
civilization the will to power
Civilization & the Will to Power
  • Rulers seek to expand their power – in every civilization we know of
  • Prototype in the West:
    • Alexander the Great
  • Not the first large empire in the West
  • Lasting influence comes from spread of ideas
    • Greek ideas and writings spread widely
  • Alexander becomes the model in the West for the great conqueror
alexander s legacy
Alexander’s Legacy
  • Greek ideas spread and are preserved
  • Libraries preserve Homer, Socrates, Thucydides, Aristotle, Plato, etc.
    • The classical foundation of Western Civilization
  • These ideas will have a huge impact on how we think today
slide30

The Legacy of Rome

  • Roman architecture
  • Roman Law
  • Christianity
  • Constantine adopts Christianity
    • Constantine settles what it means to be “Christian” Council of Nicea
  • Creates a religion that outlives the Roman Empire itself
justinian s flea
Justinian's Flea
  • In 530 – 540 the Byzantine Emperor Justinian is poised to restore Rome
  • Roman armies have retaken North Africa and most of Italy
  • Persia and Byzantium are at peace
  • It looks like the potential for a rebirth of the Roman world
  • Then it all goes to hell
536 the year of hell
536 – The Year of Hell
  • Something happens – we don't know what
  • Global climate changes significantly for a two year period
  • This creates a unique climate window in Egypt
    • Climate change allows fleas to reach Alexandria from interior of Africa
  • The resulting plague kills 30 – 40% of the population of the Eurasian land mass over a decade
  • Byzantium and the Persian Empire are both devastated – they will never recover
slide33

Mohammed and Islam

  • In 622 Mohammed moves from Mecca to Medina
  • By 632 Mohammed has returned to Mecca and united most of the Arabian peninsula under his banner
  • Following Mohammed's death in 632, Islam begins rapid expansion via conquest
  • Islam creates an empire that extends from France to India
muslim conquest
Muslim Conquest

http://www.maps.com/ref_map.aspx?pid=11393

the crusades begin
The Crusades Begin
  • In 1095 Pope Urban II calls for Holy War against Islam
    • Goal: to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims
    • Motivation was to stem flow of power in Europe from Church to secular rulers
  • Jerusalem had been in Muslim hands for two centuries
  • Muslim rule had been generally tolerant by the standards of the day
    • All faiths were free to practice
    • Non-muslims simply paid higher taxes
the sack of jerusalem
The Sack of Jerusalem
  • In 1099 after a series of victories the Crusaders took the city of Jerusalem
  • Sack of Jerusalem is a terrible atrocity
    • Nearly half the remaining population is butchered
    • The surrender agreements are broken by Crusaders and Muslim prisoners are massacred
    • Jews and non-Catholic Christians are killed in large numbers
  • This leaves a lasting image of “crusade” to the present day
a manichean struggle
A Manichean Struggle
  • East-West struggle dates back to Classical Greece
  • To each side, the symbol of the other is important
    • A dark and terrible enemy
    • A barbarian at the gates seeking to destroy “us”
  • Both sides cycle between periods of mercy and brutality
  • This push and pull shapes the shared experience of Christendom and Ummah
loss of classical learning
Loss of Classical Learning
  • Pre-Christian learning is a problem for the early Church
  • The drive to destroy “pagan” learning dominates after Constantine
  • This led to the destruction of many of the classic works
  • In Roman territory, classical learning is deliberately destroyed as evil
islam saves the west
Islam Saves the West
  • In Persian territory, the classics were preserved
  • Islam's powerful scholarly community preserved classical learning
  • Viking age (after 793) sends Irish monks to the continent
  • Two-fold drive to preserve knowledge creates the ideal conditions for returning classical knowledge to Europe
slide41

Barbarians at the Gates

  • Temujin unites the Mongols
  • Mongol conquests re-write the
  • This disrupts the whole region
  • Trade routes are disrupted
              • Alternative routes are sought
  • Temujin's conquests last until his death in 1227
  • Temujin's Empire does not survive
timur the lame
Timur the Lame
  • Temujin's conquests create a new balance of power
  • Timur conquers in the name of Islam
  • Creates centers of learning in conquered areas – makes Samarkand a center of learning and culture
  • Timur also sets a whole new standard of brutality in his conquests
  • Timur conquers from China to Europe
the mongol legacy
The Mongol Legacy
  • The old order in central Asia is torn apart
  • A new order based on the Mongol successor kingdoms replaces the old order
  • Their successors will invade India and establish the Mughal (Mongol) Empire there
  • They spread cultural contact from East to West and back again through the centers of learning they create in cities like Samarkand
slide46

Travelling the World

  • Marco Polo (1254 ~ 1325)‏
  • IbnBattuta (1304 ~ 1377)
  • These men were wandering commentators
      • They wandered the world and wrote about what they saw and did
      • They fire the popular imaginations of their respective cultures with the wider world
      • They inspire interest in the unknown
slide48

Travelling the World

The world of 1400 is an interconnected one

    • Trade crosses land and sea to bring goods of all shapes and sizes to all the cities of Eurasia
    • Africa, Europe, Asia, are all integrated in a world trade system that spans the entire landmass
  • Trade routes are fragile
  • Travel times are long
  • Technology is still very limited
slide50

Birth of the Modern World: 1400

1400 – 1800 is a key period in history

  • Colonialism (1439 – 1980's)‏
  • A single world trade system
    • The basic ideas that will form the foundation of modern thought:
        • Renaissance (14th - 17th centuries)‏
        • Protestant Reformation (1517)‏
        • Enlightenment (17th - 18th centuries)‏
        • Peace of Westphalia (1648)
slide51

China – King of Eurasia

The great power of the future would seem to be China

  • China has the largest navy in the world
    • Chinese merchants sail the seas of the world from Japan to Africa
    • China may have circumnavigated and mapped the world from 1421 to 1423
    • Chinese military technology is the best in the world
    • In short, China has the means and the will to dominate the world in 1400
slide52

Great Empires of the Americas

  • Tawantinsuyu begins conquests that will create the Empire of the Inca
  • The Aztec Empire is about to begin its conquest of the Valley of Mexico
  • Mound builders in North America have created large scale civilizations
  • The population of the Americas is comparable to that of all of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East (about 100 million people)‏
slide54

A Shocking 100 Years

  • By 1500, it is Europe that is rising
  • Europe comes to dominate the world, eventually controlling 90% of the peoples of the world in colonies or in post-colonial diaspora states
  • Europe is king to this day – and Europeans rewrite the shape of the world – for both good and for ill
slide55

China's Inward Turn

  • In 1423 the Emperor Zhu Di dies – while his great treasure fleets are away
    • He wanted an active role for China in the world
      • China would go to the world
    • Zhu Di's son was raised by the conservative courtiers
      • The world should come to China
    • All records of the treasure fleets of 1421-23 are destroyed, the shipyards burned, and the ships are left to rot
slide56

Shot Heard Round the World

(the other one)‏

  • The Byzantine Empire was the last bit of the Roman Empire
  • By 1450, the Byzantines have been driven back to only a toehold
  • Had survived numerous sieges by Muslim armies
  • Mehmet II, Sultan of the Ottoman Turks is determined to wipe out the last Christian blot on his territory
  • He plans a massive siege, drawing on the full might of his empire
slide58

The Symbol of Constantinople

  • The Ottoman Empire is a multicultural one
  • The Romans of Constantinople are aided by a multicultural army
  • Byzantium was seen as the greatest city on earth
      • The symbolic value of Constantinople in the West is incredible
        • The Christians had been on the defensive for generations
        • Constantinople had been the bulwark of the Christian faith in the East as long as there had been a Church
slide59

The Siege of Byzantium

  • The fall is an example of how globalized the world was
  • A combination of modern cannons, superior numbers, and sheer determination
  • The great Church of Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) is converted into a mosque
  • This sends a shock wave across all of Christendom
  • The West perceives itself to be on the defensive – because it was
  • The West is thus in a weak position, and knows it
slide60

Confluence of Events

The Fall of Constantinople has several effects:

  • It cuts the major trade route from Asia to the West
  • It removes the last threat holding back Turkish expansion into Europe proper
  • It demonstrates the weakness of fortresses in the face of modern cannon
  • It spurs the West to seek to find allies among the legendary peoples in Africa and the East
  • New technology makes sea exploration possible
  • New charting techniques make accurate measures possible
  • It is also likely that several maps of Indian, Arab, and Chinese origin came into the possession of Italian and Portuguese traders in this period
the fall in context
The Fall in Context
  • A reflection of a period of European retrenchment
  • The Ottoman Turks are pressing into Europe
  • At the same time, the Reconquest is progressing in the Iberian peninsula and in this area, Islam is in retreat
  • What we see is that there is a general feeling of fear and pessimism in Europe
  • This is only about a century after the Black Death (1340's)‏
  • Great intellectual, social, & political ferment
  • The perception that things are in flux
black death
Black Death
  • Between 30% and 50% of Europe's population was killed during the 1340’s
  • The basic questioning of the traditional order – particularly the Church
  • It changes the basic economic relationships
  • It concentrates wealth
  • Changes relationships between secular and religious leaders
  • Shakes the foundations of society
dawn of the age of discovery
Dawn of the Age of Discovery
  • Europe begins the Age of Discovery in response to a perceived position of weakness
  • When Constantinople falls, the perception that Christendom is in crisis is heightened
    • Black Death
    • Ferment for reform from religious orders
    • Fall of the “greatest city in Christendom”
  • European kingdoms fear the advance of “the Turk” into Europe
  • But the timing and circumstances means that it will spur a wholly new response
dawn of the age of discovery1
Dawn of the Age of Discovery
  • Technological changes in ocean navigation and shipbuilding
  • Venice and Genoa do not face strong pressure to look for alternatives
  • Spain and Portugal are engaged in a crusade in Iberia
  • Spain and Portugal will sponsor a wave of explorers who will integrate the world in a single, unified trade system for the first time
revolution in military affairs
Revolution in Military Affairs
  • By the 1480's this revolution has completely changed the balance of military power in the world
  • Europe has pushed the development of gunpowder weapons to their peak
  • A French invasion of Italy epitomizes this in 1494
    • A modern cannon equipped army wipes out its enemies
    • The Italian response is to adopt the same gunpowder weapons and to develop a whole new type of fortification
    • The armies of Europe are innovating at a pace that is unequaled anywhere in the world
the western way of war
The Western Way of War
  • TheEuropeans are also fighting a different kind of war:
    • The emphasis is on decisive defeat of the enemy
    • This is a survival of Greek and Roman ideas
    • This is different from other types of warfare elsewhere in the world
    • The WWoW gives European states a decisive advantage
slide68

Europe Goes East

  • Europeans displace the Chinese, Indians, and Arabs in Africa and the Far East
  • When the Europeans arrive, they are definite underdogs
  • But the Europeans have a huge advantage: better technology, superior military organization, and the WWoW
  • The Europeans almost instantly begin to displace the other groups once they begin to arrive in larger numbers following the initial explorers
  • Within two centuries (by 1700) Europeans dominate the trade routes of the far east
columbus trips over the americas
Columbus Trips Over the Americas
  • Among the most significant, and tragic human interconnections in all of history
  • The peoples of the Americas had developed largely in isolation from the rest of the human population
  • In the Americas civilizations duplicate all the great achievements of those of Eurasia: agriculture, cities, science, etc.
  • But a whole series of quirks leads them to develop very different immune systems
the impact of columbus
The Impact of Columbus
  • The way of war in the Americas was also different from that of the Europeans
  • The Western Way of War leads to a different manner of fighting
  • The Aztec Imperial system also left several disaffected groups
  • Disease kills 90-95% of the population from 1500 – 1600
  • The Americas become fully integrated into a global trading system dominated by Europeans
slide71

Controversy and History

  • The basic facts of the events are hotly debated
  • For much of the period of the history of the US the narrative had been one of bold European conquest of what were essentially uncivilized peoples
  • This narrative has shifted in the late 20th century in the face of a powerful intellectual trend towards revisionist histories
  • This debate is important because it marks how people see globalization today
  • In short: the history is disputed because it matters in how you see the world of today
slide72

Colonialism & Globalization

  • Colonialism is the first wave of moddern globalization
  • It is a relatively slow process (1450's – 1914)‏
  • It is also uneven
    • Americas are colonized earliest
    • Africa is colonized latest
  • Colonialism creates the foundation of the modern age
    • It leaves us with a very controversial legacy
slide74

Colonialism & Controversy

  • This is also a very politically controversial topic
  • Developing world states have a powerful memory of the colonial age
    • Its not a pleasant one
  • Colonialism has come to symbolize their exploitation by the industrial states
  • Many blame this period for the problems of the present day
slide75

Colonialism & Controversy

  • There is certainly some truth to this argument
  • At the same time, it is a convenient excuse
  • The extent to which it is responsible is the subject of serious debate
  • Discussion often becomes embedded in these arguments
diverse colonialisms
Diverse Colonialisms
  • There is no single “colonialism”
  • Different colonizers used different means
    • Political organization
    • Social systems
    • Economic systems
    • Diaspora effects
the pre industrial colonial system
The Pre-Industrial Colonial system
  • Spain and Portugal create semi-feudal holding in the Americas based on large estates
  • England, France, and the Netherlands create mercantile outposts and smallholder colonies
  • England, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal create trading stations throughout Asia
  • Competition between European powers drives colonialism
  • Global integration progresses, but with only superficial penetration outside of the Americas
  • The wealth of empire helps fuel economic growth in Europe
time line of pre ind colonization
Time Line of Pre-Ind. Colonization
  • 1350 – 1700 the Renaissance
  • 1492 – Columbus trips over the Americas
  • 1517 – Luther kicks off Protestant Reformation
  • 1519 – 1521 Cortez conquers Mexico for Spain
  • 1521 – Magellan's circumnavigation of the world
  • 1532 – 44 Pizarro conquers Tiwantinsuyu for Spain
  • 1529 – Siege of Vienna
  • 1571 – Battle of Lepanto
  • 1582 – Gregorian calendar reforms
  • 1588 – Battle of the Spanish Armada
time line of pre ind colonization1
Time Line of Pre-Ind. Colonization
  • 1618 – 1648 Thirty Years War
  • 1642 – 1651 English Civil War
  • 1648 – Peace of Westphalia
  • 1652 – 1654 First Anglo-Dutch War
  • 1665 – 1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War
  • 1688 Glorious Revolution in England
  • 1700 – 1800 The Enlightenment
  • 1756 – 1763 Seven Years War
  • 1761 Practical steam engine invented
  • 1775 – 1783 US War of Independence
  • 1776 Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations
the industrial colonial system
The Industrial Colonial system
  • Prior to industrialization, European advantages had brought limited success
  • European trading in China and India had depended on gold and silver from the Americas
  • There was little Europe had to sell that China and India wanted to buy
  • Industrialization will greatly increase the power of Europe relative to the rest of the world, but it also depends on empire to fuel it
  • Industrialization will also shift global production
changes in production structure
Changes in Production Structure
  • Prior to 1800 most of the worlds economies were diverse and largely self-sufficient
    • Few goods were traded globally
    • The basic needs of life were produced locally
  • The advent of the industrial age will destroy these economic systems
    • The production structure shifts as first England, then other European states industrialize
    • Goods are produced in the colonial home country from materials purchased in a world market and sold in the colonies
time line of industrial colonization
Time Line of Industrial Colonization
  • 1792 – 1802 French Wars of Revolution
  • 1803 – Battle of Assaye
  • 1803 – 1815 Napoleonic Wars
  • 1811 – 1825 Bolivarian Wars
  • 1817 – David Ricardo publishes Principles of Political Economy and Taxation
  • 1839 – 1860 Opium Wars
  • 1846 – 1848 Mexican American War
  • 1848 – Marx and Engles publish The Communist Manifesto
  • 1848 – Popular uprisings in major European cities crushed by establishment powers
  • 1857 – Indian Rebellion of 1857
slide84

Time Line of Industrial Colonization

  • 1859 – Darwin Publishes On the Origin Of Species
  • 1860 – 1865 US Civil War
  • 1870 – 1871 Franco – Prussian War
  • 1879 – Anglo-Zulu War
  • 1894 – 1895 First Sino – Japanese War
  • 1899 – 1902 Boer War
  • 1898 – Spanish American War
  • 1899 – 1913 Philippine – American War
  • 1901 – Lenin publishes “What is to be done?” -
  • 1904 – Max Weber publishes The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
  • 1904 – 1905 Ruso-Japanese War
  • 1912 – 1914 Balkan Wars
  • 1914 – WWI
first wave globalization
First Wave Globalization
  • By 1870 the colonial system has creates a single, integrated market
    • Capital
    • Goods
    • Services
    • People
  • By 1900 the world will be as integrated as the world of 2000
  • This is critical for understanding globalization today
coercive colonialism
Coercive Colonialism
  • This type of colonialism is coercive and massively disruptive to social, economic, and political systems
  • Colonialism is imposed by military force on people across the globe
  • The industrial revolution in military organization fundamentally alters the balance of power
  • Colonial wars are largely one-sided affairs

“Whatever happens, we have got

The Maxim gun, and they have not.”

slide87

Forced Integration

  • Military conquest is followed by integration into the colonial system
    • The reorganization of the economy to meet the needs of the colonial power
    • European industrial goods replace locally produced goods in local markets
  • This is incredibly disruptive to the local social order
    • Traditional roles are destroyed or altered significantly
    • Local social structures that threaten the colonial power are altered at best, crushed at worst
  • The end result is a very painful transition in many areas
slide88

A New Western Mind

  • These are no longer people on defensive
  • There is a belief in progress through science and rationality
  • The scientific and material progress combined with pre-industrial racial ideas
  • The idea of people who were “slaves by nature”
  • The classical world's hierarchy of peoples combined with the monotheistic idea of a chosen people shape a powerful racist ideology
  • The basic idea is that Europeans are the pinnacle of humanity
  • A natural hierarchy of races exists
  • The military and economic subjugation is justified in explicitly racist terms
slide89

The “White Man's Burden

“Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.”

Rudyard Kipling

slide90

The Peak of Colonialism

  • In 1900 the world is divided into colonial empires, tightly integrated into a single, global marketplace
  • It is also a world that is on the verge of incredible upheaval
slide91

On the Eve of War

  • In 1913, the people of the industrial states of Europe and North America were fat and happy as never before
  • Everyone assumed that progress was the normal way of the world
  • People thought that any major wars would be short
    • The idea of war as glorious was strong
    • Nationalism motivated huge numbers
  • People assumed that the world would continue to have the same progress that it had appeared to have in the 1800's
slide92

WWI

  • WWI destroys the economies of the UK, France, Germany through attrition during the conflict
  • WWI leads to the destruction of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire via the peace of Versailles
  • WWI leads to the destruction of the Russian Empire via the February and October revolutions
  • US is left intact, becomes the dominant world economic and military power
  • Japan achieves material position on par with European powers, does not get recognition
slide93

Results of WWI

  • Glorious vision of war is utterly shattered
  • Massive social, political, and economic disruption
  • A harsh peace is imposed on Germany
  • League of Nations is formed
  • Globalized world economy is shattered
  • Colonial system is shaken to its core
  • The US turns isolationist
  • The concept of “national self determination” becomes part of the international debate