Wytham Woods: A Carbon Cycle Perspective
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Wytham Woods: A Carbon Cycle Perspective. Yadvinder Malhi, Nathalie Butt, Mike Morecroft, Katie Fenn. 2000-2009 (PgC). 10. 5. Source. deforestation. CO 2 flux (PgC y -1 ). 1.1±0.7. 5. Sink. 10. 1950. 2000. 1900. 1850. Time (y). Human Perturbation of the Global Carbon Budget.

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Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

Wytham Woods: A Carbon Cycle Perspective

Yadvinder Malhi, Nathalie Butt, Mike Morecroft, Katie Fenn


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

2000-2009

(PgC)

10

5

Source

deforestation

CO2 flux(PgC y-1)

1.1±0.7

5

Sink

10

1950

2000

1900

1850

Time (y)

Human Perturbation of the Global Carbon Budget

Global Carbon Project 2010; Updated from Le Quéré et al. 2009, Nature Geoscience; Canadell et al. 2007, PNAS


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

2000-2009

(PgC)

10

fossil fuel emissions

7.7±0.5

5

Source

deforestation

CO2 flux(PgC y-1)

1.1±0.7

5

Sink

10

1950

2000

1900

1850

Time (y)

Human Perturbation of the Global Carbon Budget

Global Carbon Project 2010; Updated from Le Quéré et al. 2009, Nature Geoscience; Canadell et al. 2007, PNAS


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

2000-2009

(PgC)

10

fossil fuel emissions

7.7±0.5

5

Source

deforestation

CO2 flux(PgC y-1)

1.1±0.7

5

Sink

10

1950

2000

1900

1850

Human Perturbation of the Global Carbon Budget

Time (y)

Global Carbon Project 2010; Updated from Le Quéré et al. 2009, Nature Geoscience; Canadell et al. 2007, PNAS


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

2000-2009

(PgC)

10

fossil fuel emissions

7.7±0.5

5

Source

deforestation

CO2 flux(PgC y-1)

1.1±0.7

atmospheric CO2

4.1±0.1

5

Sink

10

1950

2000

1900

1850

Time (y)

Human Perturbation of the Global Carbon Budget

Global Carbon Project 2010; Updated from Le Quéré et al. 2009, Nature Geoscience; Canadell et al. 2007, PNAS


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

2000-2009

(PgC)

10

fossil fuel emissions

7.7±0.5

5

Source

deforestation

CO2 flux(PgC y-1)

1.1±0.7

atmospheric CO2

4.1±0.1

5

Sink

ocean

2.3±0.4

ocean

(5 models)

10

1950

2000

1900

1850

Time (y)

Human Perturbation of the Global Carbon Budget

Global Carbon Project 2010; Updated from Le Quéré et al. 2009, Nature Geoscience; Canadell et al. 2007, PNAS


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

2000-2009

(PgC)

10

fossil fuel emissions

7.7±0.5

5

Source

deforestation

CO2 flux(PgC y-1)

1.1±0.7

atmospheric CO2

4.1±0.1

land

5

2.4

(Residual)

Sink

ocean

2.3±0.4

(5 models)

10

1950

2000

1900

1850

Time (y)

Human Perturbation of the Global Carbon Budget

Global Carbon Project 2010; Updated from Le Quéré et al. 2009, Nature Geoscience; Canadell et al. 2007, PNAS


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

So there is a large carbon sink in the land biosphere

Where is it?

What does it mean for climate change?

What is causing it?

Why is it so unstable?

Will it persist?





Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

Network of small plots, 0.3 - 1ha

Flux tower

Canopy walkway

Smithsonian

18 ha plot


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

The CTFS, Smithsonian Institute, the world’s largest tropical forest programme.

  • First census plot set up in Panama in 1980

  • Global network monitoring 4.5 million individual tropical trees; 8,500 species

  • Long term, large scale research

  • Collaboration with 75 institutions – 42 plots, 21 countries

Extension into non-tropical systems as The Smithsonian Institution Global Earth Observatories (SIGEO)


The census
The census

  • Laying out plots & subplots

    (450 subplots)

  • Tagging

  • Identifying

  • Measuring

  • Marking

  • Mapping

  • Recording

  • …of every stem >1cm dbh

  • More than 20, 000 stems!


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

N

All stems mapped across the whole plot

300 m







Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

Example of annual CO2 cycle

Dry summer 

smaller CO2 sink

Warm autumn  bigger CO2 source

source

sink

Aurela et al. 2007, Tellus B


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

The Breath of

Wytham Woods

2010

2009

2008

Thomas et al. 2010

Biogeosciences



Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

The carbon balance of Wytham Woods

What is causing this carbon sink?

How long will it persist?



Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

GPP

The Carbon Cycle of a Forest

NPP VOC

NPPleaves,flowers,fruit

R leaf

NPPwood (Branch + Stem)

DFine litterfall

R stem

R soil

R CWD

DCWD

R roots

NPPcoarse roots

NPPfine roots

DRoot

R soil het

Fdoc


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

Stem and leaf respiration

Weather station

Growth

Soil respiration

Litterfall trap

Soil core

Ingrowth Cores

Rhizotron


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

The carbon cycle of Wytham Woods

Fenn et al., in review




Earthwatch fragmented woodland objectives
Earthwatch fragmented woodland objectives

To quantify how the woodland carbon cycle varies

  • Between forest core areas and edges and between large and small fragments

  • In current and changing climatic conditions

>60% of the forest area in this region

can be classified as edge

Forest edges and small fragments are

more sensitive to changes in weather

conditions, especially moisture-related

Climate change impacts are larger in these habitats


Water loss at forest edge
Water loss at forest edge

Trees near the forest edge use more water and have

a different microclimate

Herbst et al. 2007. Forest Ecology and Management 250.



Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

Watering experiment

  • Watering once a week from the beginning of June until the beginning of September.

  • The amount of water added corresponds to 200 mm extra rainfall.


Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

Litter decomposition experiment

  • Two mesh sizes: large mesh allows soil macrofauna access to the leaves, small mesh excludes them.

  • Three months of decomposition, from the beginning of June to the beginning of September.


Soil macrofauna
Soil macrofauna

  • Approximately 80% of the leaf litter in a woodland is consumed by the soil fauna

  • In Britain, woodlice and millipedes

  • Initial breakdown of leaf litter, mixing into a homogeneous state

  • The presence of soil macrofauna enhances microbial decomposition

  • Soil fauna is sensitive to temperature and moisture conditions


Results
Results

Ash

Oak

Error bars

±1 SE



Wytham woods a carbon cycle perspective

Thank you!

Katie Fenn, Martha Crockatt, Michele Taylor, Nigel Fisher, Toby Marthews, Terhi Riutta, Paul Eddowes, Kate Barker, Sara Banning, Emma Bush, Kate Grounds, Ben Cjiffers, Richard Sylvester, Sam Armenta Butt, Luke Sherlock, Youshey Zakiuddin, Dan Gurdak, Arthur Downing, Dominic Jones, Jay Varney, Leo Armenta Butt, Jeremy Palmer, HSBC volunteers.