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Use of Sources. I think I need to establish some definite standards for the use of sources in papers for my courses.

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use of sources
Use of Sources
  • I think I need to establish some definite standards for the use of sources in papers for my courses.
  • Plagiarism is most important. Whenever you include material from any other source than your own writing, without enclosing it in quotes or insets to make it clear that it is a quotation, that will be grounds for failure in the course, and possibly even for expulsion from Drexel.
  • However, just putting in quotes or making a few changes to avoid a charge of plagiarism may be very bad writing, and may result in an F, unless it is done with due care.
a horrible example
A Horrible Example
  • Here is a bad example. In place of
    • “Most taxes influence people’s behaviour in unhelpful ways and all reduce the welfare of those who bear their economic burden. ”
    • Most taxes change people’s behavior in bad ways and they all reduce the welfare of those who pay the taxes.
  • This is called paraphrasing. You are not to paraphrase. Some teachers would count this as plagiarism. I don’t, but you could fail anyway for bad use of sources. Rewrite in your own words.
basics
Basics
  • The paper must be paginated and must have at title page and an alphabetized bibliographic listing of sources at the end.
  • These do not count toward the assigned page length.
  • More about the bibliographic listing will follow.
quoting 1
Quoting 1
  • Quotations may not be exactly as they are in the original.
  • “To establish a joint stock company, however, for any undertaking, merely because such a company might be capable of managing it successfully … would certainly not be reasonable… .”
    • Adam Smith
  • The three dots – “ … ” mean that I have left some words out to shorten the quote. This is called an elision.
  • Every elision should be shown in this way, and honestly, not in ways that distort the author’s meaning.
quoting 2
Quoting 2
  • I might decide that “joint stock company” is archaic and unclear, and want to replace it with “corporation” for clarity.
  • Then I must put the changed word in square brackets.
  • “To establish a [corporation], however, for any undertaking, merely because such a company might be capable of managing it successfully … would certainly not be reasonable… .”
    • Adam Smith
  • That, too, must be done honestly.
citation
Citation
  • Every quotation, and whenever possible any assertion of fact or of interpretation, should be justified with a citation to the source.
  • The citation should be one that can be found in more complete form in your bibliographic listing.
  • The following slides will go into detail on how to cite and list a number of different kinds of sources.
slide7
Book
  • Bibliographic listing:

Author (year), title (city: publisher)

  • Example

Telser, Lester (1997), Joint Ventures of Labor and Capital (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).

  • Citation in text:

(Author, year, pages)

  • Example

(Telser, 1997, pp. 99-101)

Red means optional

journal article
Journal Article

Author (year), “title,” Journal Title, volume, number, page range

Telser, L.G. (1996), “Competition and the Core,” Journal of Political Economy v. 104, no. 1, pp. 85-107.

(Author, year, pages)

(Telser, 1996, pp. 89-91)

newspaper or other anonymous
Newspaper or Other Anonymous

Name of Newspaper (year), “Title of Article”, (date) page range

Economist (2002), “Human Behavior: Deviations from the Mean,” (March 23) pp. 73-74.

(Name of Newspaper, year, pages)

(Economist, 2002, p. 73)

ebook 1

Green means write these words in

Ebook (1)

Author (year of original publication), title (original city: original publisher), available at Title of Website, URL, as of date on which you accessed it.

  • Veblen, Thorstein (1918), The Instinct of Workmanship; And the State of the Industrial Arts (New York: B. W. Huebsh) available at: McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, http://socserv2.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/veblen/Engineers.pdf, as of October 22, 2012.
ebook 2
Ebook (2)
  • Citation in text:

(Author, year of original publication, pages)

  • Example

(Veblen, 1918, p. 44)

other websites 1

Orange means if available

Other Websites 1

Author (year originally listed), “title” (agency), available at URL, as of date on which you accessed it.

Fleck, Susan and John Glaser and Shawn Sprague (2011), “The compensation-productivity gap: a visual essay,” (Bureau of Labor Statistics) available at: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2011/01/art3full.pdf, as of March 21, 2013.

other websites 2
Other Websites 2
  • Citation in text a) best: (Author, year)
  • Example

(Fleck, et al. 2011)

  • b) second best: (agency, year)
  • (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011)
  • c) third best: (title, year)
  • (“The compensation-productivity gap: a visual essay,” 2011)
some notes
Some Notes
  • Every item cited in the text should be listed in the bibliography, and conversely.
  • If there are two authors, list them in the bibliography and use their last names in citations in the text.
  • If there are three or more authors, list them in the bibliography and use the last name of the first, followed by “et al.” in a citation in the text.
  • Don’t use a blog. Ever.