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CHAPTER 29
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  1. 1991–2000 CHAPTER 29 POST-COLD WAR AMERICA CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD  MAY  BORSTELMANN  RUIZ

  2. “…we can get along here. We can all get along. We’ve just got to.” Rodney King, after the L.A. riots of 1992

  3. TIMELINE 1991 Rodney King beating captured on video The Promise Keepers formed Nomination of Clarence Thomas 1992 Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey Trial of police officers in King case Clinton defeats Bush for Presidency 1993 Ruth Bader Ginsberg appointed to Supreme Court Whitewater Investigation begins NAFTA approved by Congress Somali warlord kills 18 American soldiers World Trade Center bombed

  4. TIMELINE continued 1994 Nicole Brown and Ronald Goldman murdered Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act Stephen Breyer appointed to Supreme Court “Contract with America” U.S. invades Haiti and restores Aristide to power 1995 Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building bombed in Oklahoma City Dayton Accords 1996 U.S. v. Virginia Romer v. Evans O.J. Simpson trial Welfare Reform Act 19 U.S. airmen killed by truck bomb in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

  5. TIMELINE continued 1998 Bombings at U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania 1999 Columbine High School tragedy Elian Gonzales found off coast of Florida after leaving Cuba 2000 USS Cole bombed U.S. Supreme Court declares George W. Bush winner of Presidential election

  6. POST-COLD WAR AMERICA Overview • The Economy: Global and Domestic • Tolerance and Its Limits • Violence and Danger • The Clinton Presidency • The Nation and the World • The Contested Election of 2000

  7. THE ECONOMY: GLOBAL AND DOMESTIC • The Post-Cold War Economy • The Widening Gap Between Rich and Poor • Labor Unions

  8. The Post-Cold War Economy • The fall of the Soviet Union • Less money needed for military • Negative effect on military industry • Technology boom • Mergers • Time-Warner/AOL, Nestlé/Ralston-Purina, Daimler-Benz/Chrysler • Regulations: Microsoft, tobacco industry • Native Americans • Casinos: Pequots’ Foxwoods and Oneidas’ Turning Stone • Tribes benefit: factories, banks, retail, individual payments, health care, daycare

  9. The Widening Gap Between Rich and Poor • 1990s: Top 1% own more wealth than bottom 90% • CEOs salary reach 419 times more than employees • African-Americans: 50% of all black children live below poverty line • Asian, African, Latino immigrants: work the low-wage jobs

  10. Concentration of Wealth, 1990s

  11. Labor Unions • Service Workers • April, 2000: Service Employees International Union march in L.A. for wage increase • San Francisco hotel union workers negotiate 5-year contract with pay raise • April, 1997: clothing manufacturers, human rights activists, labor organizations agree to improve the garment workers plight (voluntary)

  12. TOLERANCE AND ITS LIMITS • “We Can All Get Along” • Values in Conflict • Courtroom Dramas • The Changing Face of Diversity

  13. “We Can All Get Along” • March 3, 1991: Rodney King, an African-America beaten by 4 L.A. police officers. The videotaped beating causes outrage; but the officers’ acquittal incites riots in South Central Los Angeles • 58 people died, 4,000 business destroyed

  14. Values in Conflict • The American White Male • Perceived threat • The Traditional Male Role • Promise Keepers • Father to Father • The Black Male • Men Against Destruction—Defending Against Drugs and Social Disorder • The Million Man March • Gays and Lesbians • Push to legalize same- sex marriages and adoption into gay households • Native American culture clashes with sports enthusiasts as well as animal rights activists

  15. Courtroom Dramas—Thomas • The nomination of Clarence Thomas to the U.S. Supreme Court • Anita Hill accuses Thomas of sexual harassment • American Bar Association gives very low rating to Thomas • Thomas is approved; increase of women in politics

  16. Courtroom Dramas—Simpson • Nicole Brown and Ronald Goldman murdered on June 12, 1994 • Circumstantial evidence indicts former football star, and media personality, O.J. Simpson • Trial includes race elements; detective Fuhrman’s racist comments and evidence tampering; public opinion splits along race lines • October, 1996: Simpson is acquitted • Later convicted in a civil suit

  17. The Changing Face of Diversity • Although high profile media cases spotlight racial tensions, America becomes more diverse and tolerant • 10% of population immigrants • Asians and Pacific Islanders increase by 45.9% • Latinos increase by 39.7% • Diversity reflected in arts and sports world • Tiger Woods, Lone Star, Twilight, Los Angeles, Prince

  18. VIOLENCE AND DANGER • Domestic Terrorism • Kids Who Kill • A Healthy Nation?

  19. Domestic Terrorism • April 19, 1995: Bombing of Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City • Anti-government terrorists, Americans McVeigh and Nichols • Unabomber, Theodore Kaczynski • Anti-government and anti-modern technology • Randall Weaver and the FBI • The FBI and Waco • Anti-abortion extremists • Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances

  20. Kids Who Kill • Several school shootings by children • Columbine High School: 12 killed • Gun control • The NRA and the Second Amendment • The Brady Bill

  21. A Healthy Nation? • Food: • The wealthy experience increase in eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia nervosa • The poor plagued by obesity: targets of the fast food industry • Drugs • A nation depressed: Prozac • A baby boomer generation growing old: hormone replacement therapies, Viagra • Reproduction: cloning, egg and sperm donation

  22. THE CLINTON PRESIDENCY • Clinton: The New Democrat • Clinton’s Domestic Agenda and the “Republican Revolution” • The Impeachment Crisis

  23. Clinton: The New Democrat • Working class background; Rhodes scholar; anti-Vietnam War; former Arkansas governor; • After 12 years of Republican control, national debt $4.4 trillion • Three-way race: Republican President George H.W. Bush, Democrat Bill Clinton, Reform Party Perot • The New Democrat wins Presidency • Centrist views economic views and liberal social agenda

  24. Clinton’s Domestic Agenda and the “Republican Revolution” • Gays and Lesbians in the military • Results in failed policy of “don’t ask, don’t tell” • Health care • Hillary Rodham Clinton heads task force but faces strong opposition from medical professions and pharmaceutical industries • Raised taxes of the wealthiest, reduced deficit, expanded tax credits for low-income families • Appointed Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Bryer to Supreme Court • Republican’s Contract with America: welfare reform, balanced budget, more prisons, increased defense spending, end to abortion

  25. The Impeachment Crisis • 1998: Independent counsel, Kenneth Starr, accuses Clinton of breaking a law to cover up affair with intern, Monica Lewinsky. • Charges: perjury, witness tampering, obstruction of justice • Republican controlled House impeaches Clinton; Senate does not find evidence of “high crimes and misdemeanors” • Clinton maintains high approval ratings

  26. THE NATION AND THE WORLD • Trade Agreements • Efforts at Peacemaking • Military Interventions and International Terrorism

  27. Trade Agreements • North American Trade Agreement (NAFTA) • Eliminating tariffs and trade barriers among U.S., Mexico, Canada • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) • Reduced tariffs, phased out import quotas • Some American jobs moved across borders; Mexican wages decrease • China: Most-favored-nation

  28. Efforts at Peacemaking • Northern Ireland • Peace agreement negotiated by George Mitchell • Middle East • 1993: Arafat and Rubin handshake • Rubin assassinated • Late 1990s: talks resume • Sharon elected; violence resumes between Israelis and Palestinians

  29. Military Interventions and International Terrorism • Haiti • Clinton backs democratically elected, Aristide, in opposition to coup leaders with CIA connections • Somalia • U.S. Marines as part of famine relief force and peacemakers • Warlord Aidid kills 50 Pakistani UN peacekeepers and 18 American soldiers • Balkans • U.S. air strikes and the 1995 Dayton Accords • Kosovo, 1999: U.S. military intervenes in Serbian invasion • Serbian leader Milosevic voted out and handed to War Crimes Tribunal

  30. Military Intervention and International Terrorism continued • Bombings • 1993: World Trade Center: 5 Americans killed • 1996: U.S. air base in Saudi Arabia: 19 Americans killed • 1998: 2 U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania: 224 people killed • 2000: USS Cole: 17 Americans killed • Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden

  31. THE CONTESTED ELECTION OF 2000 • The Campaign, the Vote, and the Courts • The Aftermath • Legacies of Election 2000

  32. The Election of 2000

  33. The Campaign, the Vote, and the Courts • Al Gore vs. George W. Bush • Up and down campaigns, close race after nationally televised debate • The Votes • Extremely high number of African Americans at voting booths show up for Al Gore • Gore brings in the popular vote; Bush carries a larger number of states • Due to confusing ballots in Palm Beach and Duval counties, incomplete and erroneous voter registration lists, and old voting machines, Florida not claimed by either candidate • The Courts • Florida Supreme Court orders recount • U.S. Supreme Court in split decision, 5 to 4, stops recounts and declares George W. Bush President

  34. The Aftermath • Flaws in electoral system evident in Florida and other states exposed • Outdated machines and long lines • Black voters more likely to lose their votes • Electoral College: debated, but not addressed by Congress • The media and its role in the 2000 Presidential election

  35. Legacies of Election 2000 • First first lady elected to public office: Hillary Clinton • Third parties • The Green Party and Ralph Nader • An evenly split Senate until Vermont Senator, Jeffords, switches from Republican to Independent • George W. Bush reverses Clinton’s environmental policies, ushers through Congress large tax cut, retreats from international treaties and issues