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Chapter 29

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Chapter 29

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  1. Chapter 29 Section 2 Challenging Segregation

  2. 1960 – 4 A.A. staged a sit-in at a Woolworth’s whites only lunch counter. The Sit-In Movement

  3. SNCC – Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee • Ella Baker – executive director of SCLC, urged students to create their own agency. • They formed the SNCC. • Early leaders were Marion Barry & John Lewis.

  4. Marion Barry & John Lewis

  5. From New York, pointed out that most of the movement was focused on urban areas. Robert Moses

  6. SNCC ctd… • When they went south, they were threatened and others were beaten. • 1964 – 3 were killed when trying to register others to vote. • Fannie Lou Hamer – arrested after encouraging A.A. to vote. • Later helped organize the Miss. Freedom Dem. Party.

  7. Fannie Lou Hamer

  8. The Freedom Riders • 1961 – CORE leader James Farmer asked teams to travel into the South to integrate bus terminals. • Violence erupted in Alabama, making national news and shocking Americans. • JFK tried to control the violence.

  9. Freedom Riders

  10. JFK supported the C.R.M. during his campaign in 1960. In office he was cautious because he needed Congress to pass other programs. JFK & Civil Rights

  11. JFK & Robert Kennedy actively supported the CRM. Robert helped A.A. register to vote in South. JFK & Robert Kennedy

  12. JFK & Civil Rights • Violence broke out in Montgomery & JFK urged the Freedom Riders to stop for “cooling off”. • He struck a deal with Sen. James Eastland (Miss). • Sen. Stopped the violence, & JFK agreed not to object to police arresting the Riders.

  13. JFK & Civil Rights • CORE used all their funds to bail the riders out of jail. • T. Marshall offered the use of NAACP’s Legal Defense Fund. • By 1962 segregation on interstate travel had ended.

  14. 1962 - Tried to register at U of Miss. Gov. blocked his path. JFK ordered 500 fed. marshals to escort Meredith on campus. Riot broke out. 160 marshals wounded. Meredith stayed & graduated. James Meredith

  15. Violence in Birmingham • King was frustrated that foreign policy was the main priority of JFK. • King agreed to hold demonstrations in B’ham knowing violence would probably break out. • Spring 1963 – Bull Connor arranged the attack of the Freedom Riders and had King arrested.

  16. Bull Connor

  17. Violence in Birmingham • JFK ordered his aides to prepare a civil rights bill after the events in B’ham were seen on t.v. by the nation. • King wrote “Letter From a Birmingham Jail” at this time.

  18. Letter From a Birmingham Jail • You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws…One may…ask: "How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?” The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust… One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws…

  19. After Wallace blocked the entrance of 2 A.A. students at UA JFK appeared on t.v. to announce his civil rights bill. Civil Rights Act of 1964

  20. Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Aug. 28, 1963, King led 200,000 demonstrators to D.C. to stage a peaceful rally. • Bill could easily pass the House, but found problems in Senate. • Senate used a filibuster to stall the bill. • JFK killed, Johnson committed himself to get the civil rights bill through.

  21. Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Gave federal government broad power to stop racial discrimination in the segregation of public places, to bring lawsuits to end school segregation, and to require employers to end discrimination in the workplace. • Also established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

  22. The Struggle for Voting Rights • CRA of 64 did little for the right to vote. • King decided it was time for another protest. (Selma, AL) • March headed toward Montgomery. Sheriff Clark ordered 200 state troopers & deputized citizens to rush the demonstrators. • Became known as Bloody Sunday, & was seen on t.v.

  23. Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Aug 4, 1965 – bill passes Senate. • Gave the attorney general the right to send fed examiners to register qualified voters. • Resulted in 250,000 new A.A. voters & an increase in A.A. elected officials in the South.

  24. End of Sec 2 Next- Sec 3: New Issues