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Water’s Journey Through Plants Abdullah Al-Hendi Qatar Academy Mr. Rhodes 8B
General Aim . . Is to Understand more on • How water enters the plant. • How it moves through out the plant. • Why the plant needs water to survive
And an Overview of a more detailed contents will cover ; • How water enters the plant through its roots. • TRANSPIRATION . . What it is . . And it’s process. • What are XYLEM and PHLOEM and how they transport water and nutrients through the plant and there differences. • CHLOROPLASTS's need for water. • The process of OSMOSIS. • What are ADHESION and COHESION, how they help the movement of water through the plant, and there differences.
Water’s Entry • The entry of water is through the roots. • These roots are the main part of the plants body. • The roots are located in the soil beneath the earth’s surface. • The absorption of mineral salts and water is mainly through the root hair. • These root hairs can be found all around the roots.
Water’s Entry: pictures This picture shows the root tip and the root hair located on it.
Transpiration • The process of transpiration is the the conversion of liquid water into vapor and released into the atmosphere. • This process will occur when the stomata on the leafs surface open up to release water vapor. • The plant does this because the passage of oxygen (O2) out and carbon dioxide (CO2) in for the plant to produce photosynthesis • The water is transported from the roots in liquid form through the xylem into the stems and leaves.
Transpiration: Pictures These pictures clearly explain how transpiration works from the First step to the last step.
Xylem • The responsibility of xylem is to transport mostly water, but also from the roots through the stem and to the leaves. • One of its other uses is to replace the loss of water from transpiration. • Xylem is one of two transport types in vascular plants. • Vascular plants are plants that have certain tissues that can conduct minerals, water, and products that are produced from photosynthesis.
Xylem: . . continued • The xylem is composed of nonliving, hollow cells. • The xylem is a tube in the innermost of the stem. • Xylem can only transport water going up the xylem tubes through the plant. • Xylem cells support the weight of the plant because of the reinforcements they have on there cell walls. Cross Section:
Phloem • Tubes in the plant that transports organic nutrients from the leaves to the roots. • The cells of the phloem are living. • Transports sap that is filled with sugar (glucose) produced by photosynthesis. • The sap is sent to locations that are non-photosynthetic in the plant such as the roots. • The phloem can transport these nutrients up and down the plant.
Phloem and Xylem differences Xylem Phloem • The xylem tissue dies in one year’s time and is created anew. • Xylem can only move water upwards the plant. • The phloem is always alive. • Phloem can transport nutrients upwards and downwards the plant.
Xylem and Phloem: Picture This picture shows the differences of the xylem vessel and the phloem vessel and how they transport nutrients and water through the plant.
Adhesion and Cohesion • Adhesion is the process of any form of attraction between unfamiliar species of molecules. • Cohesion is the attraction of like molecules (same specie of molecule).
How are they related to Xylem and Phloem • Adhesion sticks to the cell walls of the xylem and cohesion attracts like molecules in this case, hydrogen (O2), the water molecules (hydrogen, O2) form a continuous stream of water up the tube. • This allows water travel up the xylem tube. • After transpiration, the stage of phloem takes place.
Adhesion and Cohesion differences Adhesion Cohesion • Adhesion attracts unfamiliar molecular species. • Cohesion attracts like molecular species .
Osmosis • Osmosis is the movement of water through the cell membrane… • Or, it is the movement of water through a selectively permeable from an area with a large amount of water (Low Concentration) to an area to a low amount of water (High Concentration). • It can produce energy and be used for the plant to do work, however it is a passive process.
Chloroplasts • Chloroplasts are organelles in plant cells that capture light energy and use it to make photosynthesis. • Using osmosis water enters the chloroplasts and then is able to react with carbon dioxide (CO2) and create sugar (glucose) and oxygen (O2). • The sugars and oxygen are then used to create energy for the plant to survive and continue its life.
Chloroplasts: pictures These are chloroplasts from an elodea leaf. This picture shows how chloroplasts take in the sunlight and convert it into energy.
Bibliography: Cited Websites • "BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Plant Transport." BBC - Homepage. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_gateway/greenworld/planttransportrev1.shtml>. • "Plant Structure." Clinton Community College. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio 102/bio 102 lectures/plant structure/plant structure.htm>. • "Phloem." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phloem>. "Adhesion." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adhesion>. • "Cohesion." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cohesion>. • "What Is the Role of Cohesion and Adhesion in Water Movement within Plants? - Yahoo! Answers." Yahoo! Answers - Home. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100304194541AAvqVq2>. • "Biology4Kids.com: Plants: Xylem and Phloem." Rader's BIOLOGY 4 KIDS.COM. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/plants_xylemphloem.html>. • "Biology4Kids.com: Cell Function: Passive Transport." Rader's BIOLOGY 4 KIDS.COM. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell2_passivetran.html>. • "Osmosis." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osmosis#Basic_explanations>.