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The Early Middle Ages

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  1. The Early Middle Ages Chapter 15, Section 1, page 512

  2. The Geography of Europe – page 512 • Europe is a continent. • a peninsula made up of smaller peninsulas • most of Europe lies within 300 miles of the sea • rivers – Rhine, Danube, Vistula, Volga, Seine, etc. • mountains – Alps, Carpathians, etc. • mountains and rivers – encouraged trade, provided safety, and separated cultures

  3. The Germanic Kingdoms – page 514 • When last we were in Europe… • Western Roman Empire was collapsing • 476 A.D. – last Western emperor was deposed • Germanic tribes had spread throughout the old territory of the Empire • Byzantine Empire was thriving • Christianity was well established • What does this mean? • population shifts to rural areas • unifying factors of the empire start to diminish • decline of literacy

  4. The Germanic Kingdoms – page 514

  5. Who Were the Franks? – page 514 • c. A.D. 400 – the Franks settled modern day France • Clovis – Frankish king who became a Catholic • conversions • death and division of land • breakdown in royal duties • “mayors of the palace”

  6. Who Were the Franks? – page 515 • Charles Martel – famous mayor of the palace who wanted to reunite Europe • A.D. 732 – defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours • Pepin the Short – became king of the Franks (with help); defended the pope against the Lombards(Papal States)

  7. Who Was Charlemagne? – page 515 • Charlemagne – Charles the Great • defended pope, again • defeated the Saxons in Germany and converted them • regained parts of Spain from the Muslims • Christmas Day, A.D. 800 – Pope Leo III crowned him Roman Emperor • Hmmm?

  8. Who Was Charlemagne? – page 515

  9. Who Was Charlemagne? – page 516 • Aachen – capital of Charlemagne’s empire • leadership style • man of the people? • set up courts • sent out “the lord’s messengers” • strong belief in education (perhaps because of his own shortcomings) • focus on religion, music, literature, arithmetic, Latin

  10. Who Was Charlemagne? – page 518 • Charlemagne’s impact • united a large portion of Europe • defended Christianity and the Church • spread Christianity • supported education • empire disintegrated after his death → son Louis → to grandsons Charles, Lothair, and Louis

  11. Europe Is Invaded – page 518 Europe after the Treaty of Verdun, 843 A.D.

  12. Europe Is Invaded – page 518 • A.D. 800s and 900s were not good times… • Magyars • Muslims • Vikings • Vikings, a.k.a. Norsemen (“north men”) • Scandinavia • top-notch sailors courtesy of their longboats • feared raiders

  13. Europe Is Invaded – page 518 • Vikings • Why raid? • geography - fjords – steep sided valleys that are inlets of the sea • part of the culture – “Valhalla” • known for their ferocity and violence • Normandy

  14. Europe Is Invaded – page 518

  15. The Holy Roman Empire – page 519 • eastern Frankish kingdom divided into tiny states • Henry I (the Fowler) • Otto I - German king the pope declared emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in A.D. 962 • most emperors were weak • outcome: Germany and Italy remained divided into small kingdoms until the 1800s

  16. The Rise of the Catholic Church – page 519 • Pope Gregory I (the Great) – sent missionaries throughout Europe to convert people to Catholicism • conversion of Ethelbert, ruler of Kent (Britain) • by A.D. 1050 most of the people in Western Europe had converted to Catholicism • monasteries filled essential roles • later became money-makers = involvement in the politics of the area

  17. Why Is Gregory VII Important? – page 520 ☼ ☼

  18. Why Is Gregory VII Important? – page 520 • Concordat of Worms – pope named bishops; only kings could give them government positions • limited the power of the emperor • concordat – agreement between the pope and the ruler of a country • struggle of popes and kings • interdicts

  19. Feudalism Chapter 15, Section 2, page 523

  20. What Is Feudalism? – page 523 • feudalism – political and social system in which landowning nobles governed and protected the people in return for services (particularly military service) • vassal – a noble who served a lord of a higher rank • fief – land granted to a vassal

  21. What Was the Manorial System? – page 524 • manorial system – basic economic arrangement during the Middle Ages that rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs • manor – lord’s estate • lords provided housing, farmland, protection, and other services • serfs (peasant laborers bound by law to the lands of a noble) provided labor (cared for livestock, tended crops, etc.) and other duties, and paid for services • couldn’t marry without permission of lord

  22. What Was the Manorial System? – page 524

  23. How Did Farming Improve? – page 526 • farming improvements • wheeled plow • horse collar • water and wind power • crop rotation

  24. Life in Feudal Europe – page 526 • knights – mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lord’s lands in exchange for a fief • Why? • changes in technology made mounted combat effective • expense • Process – page (7) → squire (14) → knight (21) • knights follow code of chivalry (guide for knights good behavior) • manors run by women in their husband’s absence

  25. How Did Nobles Live? – page 526 • the castle • not one design fits all • types: motte and bailey, concentric, etc. • not built for comfort • formidable structure

  26. What Was Peasant Life Like? – page 527 • In a word, harsh. • hard work and lots of it • living conditions: dirty, cramped, little privacy • life expectancy around 35 years • diet was meager • women pulled double duty • Church was central: Christian feast days • as bad as we think?

  27. Trade and Cities – page 528 • A surplus of goods and safer travel allowed trade to resume by 1100; which led to bigger cities; for example: • Venice – Italian city that was a major trading center • Flanders – the center of trade in Northern Europe • trade fairs established • bartering gives way to coinage again

  28. Crafts and Guilds – page 530 • guild – organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members • protected and taught trades like tanning, carpentry, masonry, etc. • set standards and prices • decided who could join a trade • guaranteed quality work • apprentice (around 10 years of age), journeyman (by 17 or 18), master (produce a masterpiece and be accepted by the guild)

  29. What Was City Life Like? – page 530 • dirty, smelly, polluted, cramped, crowded, noisy, fire-prone

  30. Kingdoms and Crusades Chapter 15, Section 3, page 535

  31. England in the Middle Ages – page 535 • Alfred the Great – united the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and drove away Vikings • William the Conqueror – Duke of Normandy; claimed English throne and won it after the Battle of Hastings • French language • merger of customs

  32. Henry II and the Common Law – page 537 • Henry II (r. 1154 – 1189) • circuit judges • established common law – law that is the same throughout the kingdom • established the jury system • grand jury – decides if a person can be accused of crime • trial jury – decides if the person is guilty or innocent

  33. What Was the Magna Carta? – page 537 • Magna Carta (A.D. 1215) • “Great Charter” • King John vs. the nobles • limits on the right of the king to collect taxes • trials by peers for freemen • statement of rights and duties of king and vassals • summary: established the idea that people have rights and that the power of the government should be limited • Edward I and the English Parliament

  34. The Kingdom of France – page 538 • Hugh Capet and the Capetian dynasty • Philip II – strengthened king’s position • Philip IV – met with the first Estates-General – France’s first parliament • first estate – clergy • second estate – nobles • third estate – everyone else

  35. Eastern Europe and Russia – page 539 • the Rus – Slavic name for Viking rulers • Kiev – center of the Kievian Rus • trouble with the Mongols • Ivan III takes title of czar

  36. The Crusades – page 541 • 1071 – Muslim Turks take control of Asia minor; Byzantines defeated • 1095 – Pope Urban II calls for a crusade (holy war) to drive out the Muslims and reclaim the Holy Land • First Crusade – drove Muslims from Jerusalem • Second Crusade – utter failure • Third Crusade – Fredrick Barbarossa, Philip II, Richard I vs. Saladin • Fourth Crusade – wrong reasons • others

  37. The Crusades– page 541

  38. The Crusades – page 541 • summary: • Crusades = Catholics vs. Muslim Turks • effects: increased trade, helped to breakdown feudalism, reduced power of nobles/increased power of kings, weakened power of pope, weakened Byzantine Empire, damaged Christian/Muslim relations

  39. The Church and Society Chapter 15, Section 4, page 544

  40. Religion and Society – page 545 • growth of monasteries means growth of the Church’s power base • A.D. 900s witnessed 157 new monasteries, 326 in the 11th century, 702 in the 12th century • In England, by the 1200s, nearly one of every 50 adult males was a monk. • new religious orders: Cluniac order, Cistercian order • Hildegard of Bingen – headed a convent in Germany and composed Church music

  41. Religion and Society – page 546 • friars – monks who go out into the world to preach • Francis of Assisi – founder of the first order of friars who helped the poor and served as missionaries • Franciscan monks • Dominic de Guzmán – founded Dominican order who defended the Church’s teachings

  42. The Role of Religion – page 546 • Church is important • recorded births, deaths • conducted weddings • ran schools • mass – Catholic worship service • sacraments • Baptism, Eucharist, Reconciliation, Confirmation, Marriage, Holy Orders, Anointing of the Sick • saints • relics

  43. What Was the Inquisition? – page 547 • Church tried to put an end to heresy – religious beliefs that conflict with Church teachings • friars try • 1233 – pope established the Inquisition, a church court, to root out heretics • methods of the Inquisition

  44. How Were Jews Treated? – page 547 • anti-Semitism – hatred of Jews • Why? • refused to accept Christianity • careers • scapegoats • manifestations – mobs, special clothing, restrictions on clothing, murder • effects – Jewish expulsion

  45. Medieval Culture – page 549 • Architecture • Romanesque style – rectangular, long, rounded roofs, huge pillars and thick walls • Gothic style – ribbed vaults and pointed arches instead of rounded barrel vaults, flying buttresses, stained glass

  46. The First Universities – page 550 • grammar, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy • doctor’s degree in law, medicine, and theology – the study of religion and God • Thomas Aquinas – scholasticism’s greatest champion, combined teachings of Aristotle with those of the Church • Summa Theologica • “natural law”