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Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. Anatomy & Physiology Chapters 7 and 8 Axial and Appendicular Skeletons

  2. Axial Skeleton • Longitudinal axis of the body • Skull, thoracic cage and vertebrae • Skull: 8 cranial (cranium or “braincase”) and 14 facial bones (face) • Skull also: 6 auditory ossicles and hyoid bone • 24 vertebrae and sacrum and coccyx • 24 ribs and sternum • Know #’s on page 199 • Know vertebrae

  3. Figure 7-1 The Axial Skeleton SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 AXIAL SKELETON 80 APPENDICULAR SKELETON (see Figure 8–1) 8 Cranium Skull 14 Face Skull and associated bones 29 Auditory ossicles 6 Associated bones 1 Hyoid Sternum 1 Thoracic cage 25 24 Ribs 24 Vertebrae Vertebral column 1 Sacrum 26 1 Coccyx Skull Cervical vertebrae Sternum Thoracic vertebrae Ribs Costal cartilages An anterior view of the entire skeleton, with the axial components highlighted. The numbers in the boxes indicate the number of bones in the adult skeleton. Lumbar vertebrae Sacrum Coccyx Anterior (left) and posterior (right) views of the axial skeleton. The individual bones associated with the skull are not visible.

  4. Functions of axial skeleton • Framework that supports and protects brain and spinal cord and vital organs in thorax • Extensive surface area for attachment of muscles • Adjust head and neck position • Perform respiration • Stabilize/position appendicular skeleton • Limited articulations • Strength • Reinforcements of ligaments

  5. Skull • Cranial Cavity – “houses the brain” • Occipital, frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, parietal (pr) and temporal(pr) • Not only supports and protects the brain • Attaches muscles that move eyes, jaw and head • Facial Bones – “front porch, over entrances to digestive and respiratory systems” • Maxilla (pr), lacrimal, nasal, zygomatic and mandible • Palantine, inferior nasal conchae, vomer

  6. Vocabulary terms • Septum: divider or wall • Sinus: air filled cavities within bones of the skull; • Make bones lighter (less dense) • Mucus membranes moisten and clean air • Suture: immovable joints that fuse bones of adult skull • Lamboid suture arches across back • Coronal suture arches across the front • Sagiattal suture across the top of skullcap (R and L) • Sqaumous suture on each side of skull (by ears) • Sutures allow for bones to move as infant is born; bone is not ossified and brain is growing rapidly – areas called fontanelles or soft spots • Know view c on page 201 • SAVE things like table on pg 213 for college anatomy course  • Very odd picture on page 215

  7. Figure 7-3a-c The Adult Skull OCCIPITAL BONE Sagittal suture Lambdoid suture PARIETAL BONE (left) PARIETAL BONE (right) PARIETAL BONE (right) PARIETAL BONE (left) Lambdoid suture Sagittal suture OCCIPITAL BONE Squamous suture TEMPORAL BONE Coronal suture Mastoid process Styloid process FRONTAL BONE ZYGOMATIC BONE Occipital condyle External occipital protuberance NASAL BONES MANDIBLE Posterior view Superior view Coronal suture PARIETAL BONE FRONTAL BONE SPHENOID Supra-orbital foramen Squamous suture TEMPORAL BONE NASAL BONE LACRIMAL BONE Squamous part of temporal bone ETHMOID Lambdoid suture Infra-orbital foramen OCCIPITAL BONE MAXILLA External acoustic meatus ZYGOMATIC BONE Mastoid process Styloid process MANDIBLE Zygomatic process of temporal bone Mental foramen Zygomatic arch Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mental protuberance Lateral view

  8. Vertebral column • Vertebral column = spine • Vertebra = bone (vertebrae = plural; bones) • 24 bones; 5 regions • 4 curves • Primary curves – accommodate organs • Secondary curves – compensation (of weight) • Sacrum – accommodates hips • Coccyx – tailbones (fused)

  9. Vertebra • Vertebral body – bears weight • Each vertebra connected to next with ligaments • Separated by vertebral discs • Ventral – internal by aorta and intestine • Vertebral arch – posterior to foramen • Behind the spinal cord (most dorsal) • Pedicles and lamina • Articular process • “bumps” • Keep spine aligned • Spaces for nerves to leave

  10. Figure 7-18 Vertebral Anatomy Superior articular process Pedicle Transverse process Articular processes Vertebral body Spinous process Vertebral arch Inferior articular facet Vertebral body Arrow passing through vertebral foramen Inferior articular process The major components of a typical vertebra A lateral and slightly inferior view of a vertebra Spinous process Superior articular facets Inferior articular process Superior articular process Superior articular process Transverse process Lamina of vertebral arch Intervertebral foramen Pedicle Inferior articular facet Intervertebral disc Vertebral body Vertebral foramen Spinous process Intervertebral disc An inferior view of a vertebra Transverse process Vertebral body Vertebral body Inferior articular process Inferior articular facet Arrow passing through vertebral canal An posterior view of three articulated vertebrae A lateral and sectional view of three articulated vertebrae

  11. Vertebrae • Cervical vertebrae C1 – C7 • C1 = atlas; holds up head like Atlas holds up Earth; nods yes • C2 = axis; earth rotates on axis; nods no • Thoracic vertebrae T1 – T12 • Each has a pair of ribs • Lumbar vertebrae L1 – L5

  12. Appendicular Skeleton • 80 bones of axial skeleton are only 40% of total • Remaining 60% are in appendicular skeleton • “ appendages “ - arms and legs, shoulders and hips • MOVEMENT of body and • MANIPULATION of objects

  13. Pectoral Girdle • Think pectoral muscles/ “pecs”/ shoulders, chest and arms • Clavicles – collar bones; meet at sternum • Scapula – shoulder blades; LOTS of skeletal muscle but NO direct bone or ligament connection to axial skeleton • Humerus – upper arm • Radius – lower arm/ thumb side • Ulna – lower arm/ point of elbow to pinky finger • Bones of the hand *

  14. Figure 8-6 Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand RADIUS RADIUS ULNA Lunate Lunate Scaphold Scaphold Triquetrum Trapezium Trapezium Pisiform Trapezoid Trapezoid I Capitate Capitate I Hamate V V IV Metacarpal bones IV II Metacarpal bones III III II Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx Proximal phalanx Middle phalanx Distal phalanx Posterior view Anterior view THIS WILL BE YOUR BIG ESSAY! LABEL THIS DIAGRAM

  15. Carpel bones • Wrist has 8 bones • 5 metacarpels • 14 phalanges

  16. Pelvic girdle • Hip bones (coxal) – ilium, ischium and pubis • Pelvic brim, pelvic inlet, pelvic outlet • See page 243

  17. Legs and Feet • Femur – longest and heaviest bone • Patella – kneecap; sesamoid bone, tendons to quadriceps femoris • Tibia – shin; large bump inside ankle • Fibula – lateral; attaches to tibia NOT femur; interosseous membrane; doesn’t support weight and is for movement of the foot • 7 ankle (tarsal) bones bear weight of body • Calcaneous – largest; “heel bone”; Achilles tendon • Metatarsal bones and phalanges