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Quest for Equality: Louis Kerr versus The Enoch Pratt Free Library. By Lisa M. Boyd Consumer Health Librarian NN/LM National Network Office National Library of Medicine, NIH. Judicial Decisions. Librarian Training Program Louis Kerr v. Enoch Pratt Free Library 1945

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Quest for equality louis kerr versus the enoch pratt free library

Quest for Equality:Louis KerrversusThe Enoch Pratt Free Library

By Lisa M. Boyd

Consumer Health Librarian

NN/LM National Network Office

National Library of Medicine, NIH


Judicial decisions
Judicial Decisions

  • Librarian Training Program

    • Louis Kerr v. Enoch Pratt Free Library 1945

  • Public Graduate Education

    • Sweatt v. Painter 1950

    • McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents 1950

  • All Public Education

    • Brown v. Board of Education 1954





Louise lyles kerr
Louise Lyles Kerr

  • Baltimorean

  • 27 Years old in 1943

  • High School, Normal School & University of Pennsylvania

  • Elementary School Teacher

  • Aspired to be a Librarian


Enoch pratt free library training program
Enoch Pratt Free Library Training Program

  • 9 Month program

  • Professional training for librarians

  • Graduates employed by Pratt Library

  • Over 200 Black applicants rejected

  • “…unnecessary and unpractical to admit colored persons…”


Enoch pratt free library beginnings
Enoch Pratt Free Library Beginnings

Enoch Pratt

Central Library on Mulberry Street 1886


Black assistant librarians
Black Assistant Librarians

1943 & 1944

  • Pitcher Street Branch

    • Iona Wood Collins

      • Hampton University

    • Thelma L. Thomas

      • Hartford, Connecticut

    • Alma Long Bell

      • Appointed Head , 1944

      • Clark Atlanta University


Quest for equality louis kerr versus the enoch pratt free library

Pratt Library Staff

  • 1943

  • 150 Senior & Junior Assistant Librarians

    • Main Library

    • 26 Branches

  • 2 Black Junior Librarians

    • Black Neighborhood Branches


Lillie may carroll jackson
Lillie May Carroll Jackson

President, NAACP Baltimore City Chapter 1935 - 1970


Charles hamilton houston
Charles Hamilton Houston

  • 1895 - 1950

  • Education:

    • Amherst College 1915

      • Valedictorian

    • Harvard Law School 1923

      • cum laude

      • Harvard Law Review

  • Dean, Howard University School of Law 1929- 1935

    • 1931 ABA accreditation

    • Association of American Law Schools

  • Counsel for NAACP 1935-1940

    • Architect of Civil Rights legal strategies


Fourteenth amendment
Fourteenth Amendment

Section 1:

____________

  • “All persons born…in the United States…are citizens...”

  • “No State…shall abridge the privileges…of citizens…”

  • “…nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law,…”


Thurgood marshall
Thurgood Marshall

  • 1908 - 1993

  • Education:

    • Lincoln University 1930

    • Howard University School of Law 1933

  • Career:

    • NAACP Attorney, Baltimore Branch 1934-36

    • Chief Counsel, NAACP 1936-61

      • Brown vs. Board of Education 1954

    • US Court of Appeals, Second Circuit 1961-65

    • Solicitor General 1965-67

    • Associate Justice, US Supreme Court 1967-91


Quest for equality louis kerr versus the enoch pratt free library


Louise kerr verus enoch pratt free library
Louise Kerr verus Enoch Pratt Free Library

Lawsuit

  • Violation of 14th Amendment

  • $60,000 in damages

  • Joined by T. Henderson Kerr

    • Father of Louise

    • Pharmacist

    • Tax Payer

    • $5,000 in damages


Louise kerr vs enoch pratt free library
Louise Kerr vs Enoch Pratt Free Library

  • Defendants:

    • Pratt Library

      • Nine Trustees

      • Librarian

    • Mayor of Baltimore

    • City Council of Baltimore

  • Defendants’ Lawyers

    • Harry N. Baetjer

    • Allen A. Davis


March 7 1944
March 7, 1944

Enoch Pratt Free Library Victorious

  • Judge W. Calvin Chestnut ruled:

    • Pratt Library

      • Private corporation

      • Not bound by 14th Amendment

      • No intent to discriminate


April 17 1945
April 17, 1945

Kerr & NAACP Victorious

  • Fourth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals

    • Judge Morris Ames Soper wrote:

      • Pratt Library

        • Public Agency of the State of Maryland

        • Violated 14th Amendment


Quest for equality louis kerr versus the enoch pratt free library

Life After Verdict

  • Wheeler resigned

  • Resolution rescinded

  • Training program opened to all

  • Pass then employed by Library


The kerr principle
The Kerr Principle

Don Herzog, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor Law School

Michigan Law Review, Vol. 105, October 2006


Epilogue
Epilogue

Louise Lyles Kerr-Hines

  • March 15, 1916 – April 9, 2007

  • Education:

    • Douglass High School 1934

    • Coppin Normal School 1937

  • Married C. Morsell Hines 1946

  • Career:

    • Elementary School Teacher

    • NAACP Office Secretary

    • Afro AmericanNewspaper Reporter

    • MD Department of Human Resources – Retired 1978

  • Life Member of NAACP


T hank you
Thank You!

  • Ms. Louis Lyles Kerr-Hines

  • Ms. Iona Wood Collins

  • Ms. Thelma L. Thomas

  • Ms. Alma Long Bell


Thank you
THANK YOU ! ! !

E-Mail: boydl@mail.nlm.nih.gov