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Chapter 12. Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders. Anxiety. Anxiety – apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or dread from real or perceived threat Fear – reaction to specific danger Normal anxiety – necessary for survival. Levels of Anxiety. Mild anxiety Moderate anxiety Severe anxiety Panic.

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Anxiety and

Anxiety Disorders


Anxiety
Anxiety

  • Anxiety – apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or dread from real or perceived threat

  • Fear – reaction to specific danger

  • Normal anxiety– necessary for survival


Levels of anxiety
Levels of Anxiety

Mild anxiety

Moderate anxiety

Severe anxiety

Panic


Chapter 12

A parent is shopping with a 5-year-old child in a large, busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?


Chapter 12

Mild busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

Moderate

Severe

Panic


Defenses against anxiety
Defenses Against Anxiety busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

  • Defense mechanisms

    • Automatic coping styles

    • Protect people from anxiety

    • Maintain self-image by blocking

      • feelings

      • conflicts and

      • memories

    • Can be healthy or unhealthy


Anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

  • Clinical picture

  • Epidemiology

  • Comorbidity

  • Etiology

    • Biological

      • Genetics

    • Neurobiological


Psychological theories
Psychological Theories busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

  • Psychodynamic theories

    • Sigmund Freud

    • Harry Stack Sullivan

    • Behavior theories

    • Cognitive theories

  • Cultural considerations


Panic disorders pd
Panic Disorders (PD) busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

  • Panic attack

  • Panic disorder without agoraphobia

  • Panic disorder with agoraphobia

  • Simple agoraphobia


Phobias
Phobias busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

  • Specific phobias

  • Social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD)


Obsessive compulsive disorder ocd
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

  • Obsessions

    • Thoughts, impulses, or images that persist and recur, so that they cannot be dismissed from the mind

  • Compulsions

    • Ritualistic behaviors an individual feels driven to perform in an attempt to reduce anxiety


Generalized anxiety disorder gad
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

  • Excessive anxiety or worry about numerous things

  • Lasts for 6 months or longer


Posttraumatic stress disorder ptsd
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

  • Flashbacks

  • Avoidance of stimuli associated with trauma

  • Experience of persistent numbing of responses

  • Persistent symptoms of increased arousal


Acute stress disorder
Acute Stress Disorder busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?

Occurs within 1 month after exposure to highly traumatic event

Must display at least 3 dissociative symptoms – during or after event

Resolves within 4 weeks


Substance induced anxiety disorder
Substance-Induced busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?Anxiety Disorder

  • Symptoms of anxiety, panic attacks, obsessions, and compulsions

  • Develop with the use of a substance or within a month of stopping use of the substance


Anxiety due to medical conditions
Anxiety Due to busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?Medical Conditions

Symptoms of anxiety are direct physiological result of a medical condition


Application of the nursing process
Application of the busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?Nursing Process

  • Assessment

    • General assessment of symptoms

    • Self-assessment

    • Assessment guidelines: anxiety disorders

  • Nursing Diagnosis

  • Outcomes Identification

  • Planning


Application of the nursing process continued
Application of the busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result?Nursing Process Continued

  • Implementation

    • Mild to moderate levels of anxiety

    • Severe to panic levels of anxiety


Basic level nursing interventions
Basic Level busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result? Nursing Interventions

  • Counseling

  • Milieu therapy

  • Promotion of self-care activities

  • Pharmacological interventions

  • Health teaching


Advanced practice interventions
Advanced Practice busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result? Interventions

  • Cognitive therapy

  • Behavioral therapy

    • Relaxation training

    • Modeling

    • Systematic desensitization


Advanced practice interventions continued
Advanced Practice busy urban mall. The parent suddenly realizes the child is missing. Which level of anxiety would likely result? Interventions Continued

  • Behavioral therapy, continued

    • Flooding

    • Response prevention

    • Thought stopping

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy