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Project Management Timelines. Learning Objectives. Students will be able to Understand how to plan, monitor, and control projects with the use of PERT.

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Presentation Transcript
learning objectives
Learning Objectives

Students will be able to

  • Understand how to plan, monitor, and control projects with the use of PERT.
  • Determine earliest start, earliest finish, latest start, latest finish, and slack times for each activity along with the total project completion time.
  • Reduce total project time at the least total cost by crashing the network using manual or linear programming techniques.
  • Understand the important role of software in project management.
chapter outline
Chapter Outline

13.1 Introduction

13.2 PERT

13.3 PERT/COST

13.4 Critical Path Method

13.5 Other Topics in Project Management

project management models
Project Management Models
  • PERT
  • PERT/Cost
  • Critical Path Method
questions addressed by pert and cpm
Questions Addressed by PERT and CPM

1. When will the project be completed?

2. What are the critical activities or tasks in the project?

3. Which are the noncritical activities?

4. What is the probability that the project will be completed by a specific date?

5. Is the project on schedule, ahead of schedule, or behind schedule?

6. Is the project over or under the budgeted amount?

questions continued
Questions - continued

7. Are there enough resources available to finish the project on time?

8. If the project must be finished in less than the scheduled amount of time, what is the best way to accomplish this at least cost?

project planning scheduling and controlling
Project Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling

Project Planning

1. Setting goals

2. Defining the project

3. Tying needs into timed project activities

4. Organizing the team

Project Scheduling

1. Tying resources to specific activities

2. Relating activities to each other

3. Updating and revising on regular basis

Project Controlling

1. Monitoring resources, costs, quality and budgets

2. Revising and changing plans

3. Shifting resources to meet demands

Before Project

During Project

six steps common to pert and cpm
Six Steps Common toPERT and CPM

1. Define the project and all significant activities/tasks.

2. Develop relationships among the activities. Identify precedence relationships.

3. Draw the network.

4. Assign time and/or cost estimates to each activity.

5. Compute the longest time path (critical path) through the network.

6. Use the network to help plan, schedule, monitor, and control the project.

advantages of pert cpm
Advantages of PERT/CPM
  • Useful at several stages of project management
  • Straightforward in concept, not mathematically complex
  • Uses graphical displays employing networks to help user perceive relationships among project activities
  • Critical path and slack time analyses help pinpoint activities that need to be closely watched
advantages continued
Advantages - continued
  • Networks generated provide valuable project documentation and graphically point out who is responsible for various project activities
  • Applicable to a wide variety of projects and industries
  • Useful in monitoring not only schedules, but costs as well
limitations of pert cpm
Limitations of PERT/CPM
  • Project activities must be clearly defined, independent, and stable in their relationships
  • Precedence relationships must be specified and networked together
  • Time activities in PERT are assumed to follow the beta probability distribution -- must be verified
  • Time estimates tend to be subjective, and are subject to fudging by managers
  • There is inherent danger in too much emphasis being placed on the critical path
general foundry pert
General FoundryPERT

Activity

Description

Immediate

Predecessors

A

Build internal components

B

Modify roof and floor

C

Construct collection stack

A

D

Pour concrete and install

B

frame

E

Build high-temperature

C

burner

F

Install control system

C

G

Install air pollution device

D,E

H

Inspect and test

F,G

general foundry inc pert network
General Foundry, Inc.PERT Network

A 2

C 2

F 3

Start

E 4

H 2

Finish

B 3

D 4

G 5

general foundry inc time estimates
General Foundry, Inc. Time Estimates

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

1

2

1

2

1

1

3

1

2

3

2

4

4

2

4

2

3

4

3

6

7

9

11

3

2

3

2

4

4

3

5

2

a

m

b

E(t)

2

Activity

Total: 25 weeks

general foundry inc pert network with e t
General Foundry, Inc.PERT Network - with E(t)

F 3

A 2

C 2

H 2

E 4

Start

Finish

G 5

ES LF

LS LF

B 3

D 3

general foundry inc pert network es ef ls lf
General Foundry, Inc.PERT Network ES/EF, LS/LF

F 3

4 7

A 2

0 2

C 2

2 4

H 2

13 15

E 4

4 8

Start

Finish

G 5

8 13

ES LF

LS LF

B 3

0 3

D 3

3 7

general foundry inc pert network es ef ls lf1
General Foundry, Inc.PERT Network ES/EF, LS/LF

F 3

4 7

10 13

A 2

0 2

0 2

C 2

2 4

2 4

H 2

13 15

13 15

E 4

4 8

4 8

Start

Finish

G 5

8 13

8 13

ES EF

LS LF

B 3

0 3

2 5

D 3

3 6

5 8

general foundry inc critical path
General Foundry, Inc.Critical Path

ES EF

LS LF

F 3

4 7

10 13

A 2

0 2

0 2

C 2

2 4

2 4

Total Time = 15

H 2

13 15

13 15

E 4

4 8

4 8

Start

Finish

G 5

8 13

8 13

B 3

0 3

2 5

D 3

3 6

5 8

general foundry schedule slacks
General FoundrySchedule & Slacks

On

ES

EF

LS

LF

LS-ES

Critical

Activity

Path?

A

0

2

0

2

0

Yes

B

0

3

1

4

1

No

C

2

4

2

4

0

Yes

D

3

7

4

8

1

No

E

4

8

4

8

0

Yes

F

4

7

10

13

6

No

G

8

13

8

13

0

Yes

H

13

15

13

15

0

Yes

general foundry meeting a deadline
General Foundry Meeting a Deadline

0.57 Standard Deviations

15

16

Time - weeks

pert provided
PERT Provided
  • Project expected completion date: 15 weeks
  • Probability of finishing in 16 or fewer days: 71.6%
  • Identity of activities on critical path: A, C, E, G, and H
  • Identity of activities with slack: B, D, and F
  • Detailed schedule of start/finish dates
pert sensitivity analysis
PERT - Sensitivity Analysis

Impact of Increase (Decrease) in Critical

Path Activity time

Activity

Successor

Parallel

Predecessor Activity

Time

Activity

Activity

Increase

No change

No change

ES

(decrease)

Increase

No change

No change

EF

(decrease)

Increase

Increase

(Decrease)

No change

LS

(decrease)

Increase

Increase

(Decrease)

No change

LF

(decrease)

No

Increase

(Decrease)

No change

Slack

change

general foundry inc pert budgeting
General Foundry, Inc. PERT & Budgeting

Total

Budgeted

Cost

Budgeted

Cost per

Week

ES

LS)

E(t)

Activity

0

0

2

3

4

4

8

13

0

1

2

4

4

10

8

13

2

3

2

4

4

3

5

2

$22,000

$30,000

$26,000

$48,000

$56,000

$30,000

$80,000

$16,000

$11,000

$10,000

$13,000

$12,000

$14,000

$10,000

$16,000

$ 8,000

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

Total $308,000

critical path method steps in project crashing
Critical Path MethodSteps in Project Crashing

1. Find normal critical path and identify critical activities.

2. Compute crash cost per week for all activities.

3. Select critical activity with smallest crash cost per week. Crash this activity

4. Check to make sure critical path is still critical. If not, find the new one. Return to step 3.

general foundry normal crash costs times
General FoundryNormal/Crash Costs & Times

On the Critical Path?

Normal Cost

Normal Cost

Crash Cost Per Week

Crash Time

Normal Time

Activity

A

2

1

22,000

23,000

1,000

Yes

B

3

1

30,000

34,000

2,000

No

C

2

1

26,000

27,000

1,000

Yes

D

4

3

48,000

49,000

1,000

No

E

4

2

56,000

58,000

1,000

Yes

G

3

2

30,000

30,500

500

No

G

5

2

80,000

86,000

2,000

Yes

H

2

1

16,000

19,000

3,000

Yes

crash normal times and costs
Crash & NormalTimes and Costs

Crash

Cost

Activity

Cost

Crash

$34,000

$33,000

$32,000

$31,000

$30,000

Normal

Normal

Cost

Time (Weeks)

1

2

3

Crash Time

Normal Time