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Biogeochemical cycles. Sc.912.E.7.1 Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon. Objectives:. Identify and describe the flow of nutrients in each biogeochemical cycle.

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biogeochemical cycles

Biogeochemical cycles

Sc.912.E.7.1 Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon

objectives
Objectives:
  • Identify and describe the flow of nutrients in each biogeochemical cycle.
  • Explain the impact that humans have on the biogeochemical cycles.
  • What happens to energy in an ecosystem?
  • What happens to matter in an ecosystem?
what are biogeochemical cycles
What are biogeochemical cycles?
  • Bio= biology, life, play a role in the living organisms.
  • Geo=Earth, rock, land, this refers to non-living processes at work
  • Chemical=molecules, reactions, atoms
  • These pathways are all made of different biological, geological, and chemical processes that help make the world go 'round and life exist on Earth.
  • 5 cycles
  • Carbon
  • Hydrologic
  • Sulfur
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
cycling of materials
Cycling of Materials
  • Matter moves between ecosystems, environments, and organisms
  • Biogeochemical cycling involves
    • Biological, geologic and chemical interactions
  • Five major cycles:
    • Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur and Water (hydrologic)
what sustains life on earth
What Sustains Life on Earth?
  • Solar energy, the cycling of matter, and gravity sustain the earth’s life.

Figure 3-7

two secrets of survival energy flow and matter recycle
Two Secrets of Survival: Energy Flow and Matter Recycle
  • An ecosystem survives by a combination of energy flow and matter recycling.

Figure 3-14

matter cycling in ecosystems
MATTER CYCLING IN ECOSYSTEMS
  • Nutrient Cycles: Global Recycling
    • Global Cycles recycle nutrients through the earth’s air, land, water, and living organisms.
    • Nutrients are the elements and compounds that organisms need to live, grow, and reproduce.
    • Biogeochemical cycles move these substances through air, water, soil, rock and living organisms.
water unique properties
Water’ Unique Properties
  • There are strong forces of attraction between molecules of water.
  • Water exists as a liquid over a wide temperature range.
  • Liquid water changes temperature slowly.
  • It takes a large amount of energy for water to evaporate.
  • Liquid water can dissolve a variety of compounds.
  • Water expands when it freezes.
slide10

Condensation

Rain clouds

Transpiration

Evaporation

Precipitation to land

Transpiration from plants

Precipitation

Precipitation

Evaporation from land

Evaporation from ocean

Surface runoff (rapid)

Precipitation to ocean

Runoff

Surface runoff (rapid)

Infiltration and Percolation

Groundwater movement (slow)

Ocean storage

Fig. 3-26, p. 72

effects of human activities on water cycle
Effects of Human Activities on Water Cycle
  • We alter the water cycle by:
    • Withdrawing large amounts of freshwater.
    • Clearing vegetation and eroding soils.
    • Polluting surface and underground water.
    • Contributing to climate change.
effects of human activities on carbon cycle
Effects of Human Activities on Carbon Cycle
  • We alter the carbon cycle by adding excess CO2 to the atmosphere through:
    • Burning fossil fuels.
    • Clearing vegetation faster than it is replaced.

Figure 3-28

effects of human activities on the nitrogen cycle
Effects of Human Activities on the Nitrogen Cycle
  • We alter the nitrogen cycle by:
    • Adding gases that contribute to acid rain.
    • Adding nitrous oxide to the atmosphere through farming practices which can warm the atmosphere and deplete ozone.
    • Contaminating ground water from nitrate ions in inorganic fertilizers.
    • Releasing nitrogen into the troposphere through deforestation.
effects of human activities on the nitrogen cycle1
Effects of Human Activities on the Nitrogen Cycle
  • Human activities such as production of fertilizers now fix more nitrogen than all natural sources combined.

Figure 3-30

slide22

mining

Fertilizer

excretion

Guano

agriculture

weathering

uptake by

autotrophs

uptake by

autotrophs

leaching, runoff

Dissolved

in Soil Water,

Lakes, Rivers

Land

Food

Webs

Marine

Food

Webs

Dissolved

in Ocean

Water

death,

decomposition

death,

decomposition

weathering

sedimentation

settling out

uplifting over

geologic time

Rocks

Marine Sediments

Fig. 3-31, p. 77

effects of human activities on the phosphorous cycle
Effects of Human Activities on the Phosphorous Cycle
  • We remove large amounts of phosphate from the earth to make fertilizer.
  • We reduce phosphorous in tropical soils by clearing forests.
  • We add excess phosphates to aquatic systems from runoff of animal wastes and fertilizers.
slide24

Water

Sulfur

trioxide

Acidic fog and precipitation

Sulfuric acid

Ammonia

Ammonium

sulfate

Oxygen

Hydrogen sulfide

Sulfur dioxide

Plants

Volcano

Dimethyl sulfide

Industries

Animals

Ocean

Sulfate salts

Metallic

sulfide

deposits

Decaying matter

Sulfur

Hydrogen sulfide

Fig. 3-32, p. 78

effects of human activities on the sulfur cycle
Effects of Human Activities on the Sulfur Cycle
  • We add sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere by:
    • Burning coal and oil
    • Refining sulfur containing petroleum.
    • Convert sulfur-containing metallic ores into free metals such as copper, lead, and zinc releasing sulfur dioxide into the environment.