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Virtualization Technology Introduction. Argentina Software Pathfinding and Innovation. Intel® Corporation 28 July 2008. Introduction. Why is Intel giving this course?. Argentina Software Development Center in Córdoba - Strong investment in developing areas of expertise

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Virtualization Technology Introduction

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    1. Virtualization TechnologyIntroduction Argentina Software Pathfinding and Innovation Intel® Corporation 28 July 2008

    2. Introduction Why is Intel giving this course? Argentina Software Development Center in Córdoba - Strong investment in developing areas of expertise Software Pathfinding and Innovation - Seeking the next technological move Strategic Area in Virtualization Technology - Evolving expertise in Virtualization Technology - Augment critical mass in this area

    3. Introduction What are your expectations from this course? • Learn about virtualization technology • Academia research • Research in grids, cloud… • Planning in participate in an Open Source community from virtualization • Business • Using virtualization in my datacenter • Planning to use it • ?

    4. Introduction How is this course? Goal: - Foster virtualization technology, its usages, its capabilities and explore possible research and study projects Audience: • Beginners: provide a guide to start working/researching in Virtualization Technologies • Advanced: solidify concepts and go deep in VMM cases and Hardware assisted Virtualization Course Structure: • Virtualization Technology Introduction • Usages of Virtualization • VMMs / Hypervisors • Hardware Assisted Virtualization • Virtualization Technology Trends

    5. Agenda • Introduction • Virtualization yesterday – virtualization today • Challenges for x86 virtualization • Approaches to server virtualization • Host-based server virtualization • Full Virtualization • Para-virtualization • Hardware-assisted Virtualization • Approaches to desktop virtualization

    6. Introduction App. A App. B App. C App. D Operating System Hardware What is virtualization? Virtualization is a broad term (virtual memory, storage, network, etc) Focus for this course: platform virtualization Virtualization basically allows one computer to do the job of multiple computers, by sharing the resources of a single hardware across multiple environments Virtual Container Virtual Container App. A App. B App. C App. D Virtualization Layer Hardware ‘Nonvirtualized’ system A single OS controls all hardware platform resources Virtualized system It makes it possible to run multiple Virtual Containers on a single physical platform

    7. Introduction Virtualization Requirements Popek and Goldberg describe in their “Formal Requirements for Virtualizable Third Generation Architectures – 1974”: • A Model of Third Generation Machines • Machine states: S = (E, M, P, R) • Instructions classification • Privileged instructions • Control sensitive instructions • Behavior sensitive instructions • Properties for a Virtual Machine Monitor • Equivalence • Resource control • Efficiency • Formal analysis described through 2 theorems

    8. Introduction The VMM and the VM Equivalence Resource Control Efficiency Privileged instructions Control sensitive Behavior sensitive • For any conventional third generation computer, a VMM may be constructed if the set of sensitive instructions for that computer is a subset of the set of privileged instructions • A conventional third generation computer is recursively virtualizable if it is virtualizable and a VMM without any timing dependencies can be constructed for it.

    9. The evolution of virtualization

    10. Evolution of Virtualization How did it start? • Server virtualization has existed for several decades • IBM pioneered more than 30 years ago with the capability to “multitask” • The inception was in specialized, proprietary, high-end server and mainframe systems • By 1980/90 servers virtualization adoption initiated a reduction • Inexpensive x86 hardware platforms • Windows/Linux adopted as server OSs

    11. Evolution of Virtualization App App App App App App App App Computing Infrastructure – 2000 • 1 machine  1 OS  several applications • Applications can affect each other • Big disadvantage: machine utilization is very low, most of the times it is below than 25% X86 Windows XP X86 Windows 2003 X86 Suse X86 Red Hat 12% Hardware Utilization 15% Hardware Utilization 18% Hardware Utilization 10% Hardware Utilization

    12. Evolution of Virtualization Virtualization again… x86 server deployments introduced new IT challenges: • Low server infrastructure utilization (10-18%) • Increasing physical infrastructure costs (facilities, power, cooling, etc) • Increasing IT management costs (configuration, deployment, updates, etc) • Insufficient failover and disaster protection The solution for all these problems was to virtualize x86 platforms

    13. Evolution of Virtualization App. D App. C App. B App. A X86 Red Hat Linux X86 Suse Linux X86 Windows 2003 X86 Windows XP X86 Multi-Core, Multi Processor 70% Hardware Utilization Computing Infrastructure - Virtualization • It matches the benefits of high hardware utilization with running several operating systems (applications) in separated virtualized environments • Each application runs in its own operating system • Each operating system does not know it is sharing the underlying hardware with others

    14. Challenges for x86 virtualization

    15. Challenges of x86 virtualization x86 virtualization challenge • The IA-32 instruction set contains 17 sensitive, unprivileged instructions: • Sensitive register instructions: read or change sensitive registers and/or memory locations such as a clock register or interrupt registers: • SGDT, SIDT, SLDT, SMSW, PUSHF, POPF • Protection system instructions: reference the storage protection system, memory or address relocation system: • LAR, LSL, VERR, VERW, POP, PUSH, CALL, JMP, INT n, RET, STR, MOV • However, x86 is a really big candidate to be virtualized, mainly for business facts

    16. Challenges of x86 virtualization x86 modes: Privilege Levels • x86 processor’s segment-protection mechanism recognizes 4 privilege levels (0-high, 3-low level) - unused • Recognizes the following three types of privilege levels: • Current privilege level (CPL) • Descriptor privilege level (DPL) • Requested privilege level (RPL)

    17. Challenges of x86 virtualization x86 virtualization challenge example: reading Segment Descriptors • x86 Code Segment and Stack Segment registers: • The upper 14 bits of these registers contain the segment index and descriptor table selector. • Lower 2 bits of CS and SS registers contains the CPL (Current Privilege Level). • Instructions that explicitly or implicitly access the CS/SS selector (including CALL, MOV from SS and POP SS) do not trap when executed from user mode. • Executing POP SS the guest OS will be aware that it is not running on a privileged level when in ring 1 • The Equivalence Property could be violated • The Resource Control property is violated

    18. Challenges of x86 virtualization X86 virtualization challenge example: reading Segment Descriptors (segment details)

    19. Challenges of x86 virtualization x86 virtualization challenge example (2) • GDT, LDT, IDT and TR: • For correct virtualization, these tables should be “shadowing” (the TR, GDTR, IDTR registers should point to VMM’s shadow tables) • Non privileged code can read from these registers (that means that reading these registers do not trap) • The Equivalence Property could be violated • Table 2-2. Summary of System Instructions - Software Developer’s Manual Vol 3A

    20. Approaches to server virtualization

    21. Server virtualization approaches VM VM Virtual Machine Virtual Machine … Dynamic Translation Operating System Virtualization Logic Hardware Hardware Evolution of Software solutions • 1st Generation: Full virtualization (Binary rewriting) • Software Based • VMware and Microsoft • 2nd Generation: Paravirtualization • Cooperative virtualization • Modified guest • VMware, Xen • 3rd Generation: Silicon-based (Hardware-assisted) virtualization • Unmodified guest • VMware and Xen on virtualization-aware hardware platforms … Virtual Machine Virtual Machine … Hypervisor Hypervisor Hardware Time

    22. Server virtualization approaches Hardware Host OS Device Drivers Full Virtualization • 1st Generation offering of x86/x64 server virtualization • Dynamic binary translation • The emulation layer talks to an operating system which talks to the computer hardware • The guest OS doesn't see that it is used in an emulated environment • All of the hardware is emulated including the CPU • Two popular open source emulators are QEMU and Bochs Virtual Machine Guest OS App. A App. B App. C Device Drivers Emulated Hardware

    23. Server virtualization approaches Full Virtualization - Advantages • The emulation layer • Isolates VMs from the host OS and from each other • Controls individual VM access to system resources, preventing an unstable VM from impacting system performance • Total VM portability • By emulating a consistent set of system hardware, VMs have the ability to transparently move between hosts with dissimilar hardware without any problems • It is possible to run an operating system that was developed for another architecture on your own architecture • A VM running on a Dell server can be relocated to a Hewlett-Packard server

    24. Server virtualization approaches Application Ring 3 Guest OS Ring 1 / 3 Application Ring 3 Operating System Virtual Machine Monitor Ring 0 Ring 0 Traditional x86 Architecture Full Virtualization Full Virtualization - Drawbacks • Hardware emulation comes with a performance price • In traditional x86 architectures, OS kernels expect to run privileged code in Ring 0 • However, because Ring 0 is controlled by the host OS, VMs are forced to execute at Ring 1/3, which requires the VMM to trap and emulate instructions • Due to these performance limitations, paravirtualization and hardware-assisted virtualization were developed

    25. Server virtualization approaches Hardware Para-Virtualization • The Guest OS is modified and thus run kernel-level operations at Ring 1 (or 3) • the guest is fully aware of how to process privileged instructions • thus, privileged instruction translation by the VMM is no longer necessary • The guest operating system uses a specialized API to talk to the VMM and, in this way, execute the privileged instructions • The VMM is responsible for handling the virtualization requests and putting them to the hardware Virtual Machine Guest OS App. A App. B App. C Device Drivers Virtual Machine Monitor Specialized API Hypervisor Device Drivers

    26. Server virtualization approaches Para-Virtualization • Today, VM guest operating systems are paravirtualized using two different approaches: • Recompiling the OS kernel • Paravirtualization drivers and APIs must reside in the guest operating system kernel • You do need a modified operating system that includes this specific API, requiring a compiling operating systems to be virtualization aware • Some vendors (such as Novell) have embraced paravirtualization and have provided paravirtualized OS builds, while other vendors (such as Microsoft) have not • Installing paravirtualized drivers • In some operating systems it is not possible to use complete paravirtualization, as it requires a specialized version of the operating system • To ensure good performance in such environments, paravirtualization can be applied for individual devices • For example, the instructions generated by network boards or graphical interface cards can be modified before they leave the virtualized machine by using paravirtualized drivers

    27. Server virtualization approaches Hardware-assisted virtualization • The guest OS runs at ring 0 • The VMM uses processor extensions (such as Intel®-VT or AMD-V) to intercept and emulate privileged operations in the guest • Hardware-assisted virtualization removes many of the problems that make writing a VMM a challenge • The VMM runs in a more privileged ring than 0, a virtual -1 ring is created Virtual Machine Guest OS App. A App. B App. C Device Drivers Virtual Machine Monitor Specialized API Hypervisor Device Drivers Hardware

    28. Server virtualization approaches Hardware-assisted virtualization • The hypervisor/VMM runs at Ring -1 • super-privileged mode VMX non-root VMX root

    29. Server virtualization approaches Hardware-assisted virtualization • Pros • It allows to run unmodified Oss (so legacy OS can be run without problems) • Cons • Speed and Flexibility • An unmodified OS does not know it is running in a virtualized environment and so, it can’t take advantage of any of the virtualization features • It can be resolved using paravirtualization partially

    30. Approaches to desktop virtualization

    31. Client virtualization approaches Extending the concept of virtualization for desktops • Servers • Hosted virtualization - mainframes • VMMs / Bare Metal hypervisors • OS virtualization • Desktops • Desktop virtualization • Server-side workspace virtualization • Client-side workspace virtualization • Application virtualization • Application isolation • Application streaming

    32. Desktop virtualization approaches Desktop Virtualization • A VMM or hypervisor running on a physical desktop • Examples include: • Microsoft Virtual PC • Parallels Desktop for Mac • VMware Fusion • WINE. • Use cases include: • Emulating Windows games on the Macintosh, • Testing code inside VMs • Underpinning client-side workspace virtualization • Desktop hypervisors and VMMs don’t necessarily scale to meet enterprise needs; that’s why most of the providers have server products as well

    33. Desktop virtualization approaches Server-side workspace virtualization • A workspace (desktop operating system with custom configuration) running inside a virtual machine hosted on a server • Examples include: • VMware VDI • Use cases include: • Centrally managed desktop infrastructure • Security enforcement and lockdown • A pool of virtual workspaces resides on the server. Remote users log into them from any networked device via Microsoft’s Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) • Users can customize their virtual workspace to their heart’s content, while operators enjoy the relatively straightforward task of managing desktop configuration on one central server • Connection brokers arbitrate between a pool of virtual workspaces residing on a central server • The biggest problem with server-hosted workspace virtualization is that it’s a bandwidth hog. Performance is constrained by the performance of your network

    34. Desktop virtualization approaches Client-side workspace virtualization • A workspace (desktop operating system with custom configuration) running inside a virtual machine hosted on a desktop • Examples include: • Kidaro Managed Workspace • Sentillion vThere • Use cases include: • Secure remote access • Protection of sensitive data for defense, healthcare industries • Personal computer running corporate desktops remotely • A virtual workspace is served out to execute on the client device • Centralizes management • Its big advantage over other models is the security and isolation of data and logic on the client • It’s the right model for organizations that need to ensure the security of environments served to remote users • Defense contractors • Healthcare providers

    35. Desktop virtualization approaches Application Isolation • An application packaged with its own virtual copies of the operating system resources it might otherwise need to change (registries, file systems, libraries) • Examples include: • Thinstall • Trigence • Use cases include: • Preventing DLL hell • Sandboxing desktop applications for secure execution • Applications use a virtual registry (Thinstall) and file system embedded in the package with the application • These extra tools insulate applications from changes to and incompatibility with the underlying desktop operating system • Mostly in Windows, although Linux and Solaris as well • Drawback: increased footprint of the application package and the correspondingly greater memory requirements

    36. Desktop virtualization approaches Application Streaming • Just-in-time delivery of a server-hosted application to the desktop, such that the desktop application can execute before the entire file has been downloaded from the server • Examples include: • AppStream • Microsoft SoftGrid • Use cases include: • Managing the number of instances of running applications, in the case of license constraints • Superset of Application Isolation, including a delivery method and an execution mode • You stream the application code to the desktop, where it runs in isolation • No full PC environment, just the application, so you have to provide a workspace • Requires to maintain the client-side operating system and ensuring compatibility. This may be why application streaming, which has been around for a long time (AppStream has already raised over $50m in venture capital), has not really lived up to its early hype.

    37. Periodic table of Virtualization Extracted from Virtualization II: Desktops and applications are next – the 451 group

    38. Day wrap-up • Requirements for HW Architecture Virtualization – Popek and Goldberg • Evolution for virtualization: from mainframes to x86 architecture due to business reasons • Challenges around x86 virtualization -> ISA doesn’t comply with P&G • Server virtualization approaches • Full Virtualization • Paravirtualization • Hardware Assisted Virtualization • Client virtualization approaches • Desktop virtualization • Server-side workspace virtualization • Client-side workspace virtualization • Application virtualization • Application isolation • Application streaming

    39. Questions?

    40. Backup

    41. References • • • • • Formal Requirements for Virtualizable Third Generation Architectures – 1974 - Popek (UCLA) and Goldberg (Honeywell Information Systems and Harvard University) • Virtualization II: Desktops and applications are next – the 451 group

    42. Contacts Argentina Software Pathfinding and Innovation team from Virtualization Technology: • Guillermo Colsani: • Gisela Giusti: • Pablo Pássera: • Duilio Protti: