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Diabetes Basics

Diabetes Basics

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Diabetes Basics

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  1. Diabetes Basics KBN 2014

  2. Understanding Diabetes • Complex disease • Digestion breaks down carbohydrates  sugar (glucose) • Sugar bloodstream • Insulin moves sugar into cells for energy KBN 2014

  3. Definition of terms • “blood sugar” = “ blood glucose” • you may it hear it used interchangeably KBN 2014

  4. Body Function Without Diabetes KBN 2014

  5. Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes No insulin (key) means that sugar cannot enter the cell. Insulin (key) cannot unlock the cell door. Insulin resistance or inability of body to use insulin. KBN 2014

  6. Type 1 Diabetes • Insulin-producing cells are destroyed • Daily insulin replacement necessary • Age at onset: usually childhood, young adulthood • Most common type of diabetes in children and adolescents KBN 2014

  7. Type 1 Diabetes Onset of diabetes: canhappen relatively quickly Symptoms: increased urination, tiredness, weight loss, increased thirst, hunger, dry skin, blurred vision Cause: uncertain, both genetic and environmental factors KBN 2014

  8. Management Goal • Diabetes is managed but does not go away • Goal is to maintain a target glucose range KBN 2014

  9. Diabetes Management Making Diabetes a Part of Life • Insulin/Medication • Physical Activity • Food Intake • Other Factors KBN 2014

  10. What a Child Needs? KBN 2014

  11. What a Child Deals With? Everything that every child deals with + Diabetes KBN 2014

  12. Hypoglycemia Unawareness • Their body can not tell the child the blood sugar is low • “I just feel funny” • The child might simply be distracted • You know a child is just not acting right KBN 2014

  13. Honeymoon Phase • Not all newly diagnosed individuals experience the Honeymoon Phase • Can last for weeks up to 2 years • We can not let our guard down KBN 2014

  14. Example of Target Range For Type 1 Diabetes • Preschool and Kindergarten (3-5 yrs.) • Before meals, blood sugar range 100mg/dl-180 • The target range is always “ordered” by Health Care Provider • School Age (6-12 yrs.) • Before meals, blood sugar range 90mg/dl-180mg/dl • The target range is always “ordered” by the Health Care Provider KBN 2014

  15. Management Priorities Adult involvement Allow for participation in school/peer activities Student learning based on benefits of optimal control Preschool –Middle School (3-12 yrs.) KBN 2014

  16. Example of Target Range For Type 1 Diabetes • Adolescents and young adults (13-19 yrs.) • Before meals 90mg/dL-130mg/dL • Always Health Care Provider Ordered The Art and Science of Diabetes Self-Management Education Desk Reference, 2011 KBN 2014

  17. Management Priorities Later Adolescence 16-19 years Renegotiating adult/teens role in diabetes management Learning coping skills to enhance self management Monitoring for signs of depression, eating disorders, risky behaviors Begin discussion of transition to a new diabetes team Integrating diabetes into new lifestyle Supporting the transition to independence Early Adolescence 13-15 years KBN 2014