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THE PRESIDENCY. Unit Four Chapters 13 & 14. The Roots of the Office of President of the United States. Distrust of the King Articles of Confederation & Exec Branch What did its’ failure mean? Framers new thoughts… What did we do? “You may call me, Mr. President.”.

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The presidency


Unit Four


13 & 14

The roots of the office of president of the united states
The Roots of the Office of President of the United States

  • Distrust of the King

  • Articles of Confederation & Exec Branch

    • What did its’ failure mean?

  • Framers new thoughts…

    • What did we do?

  • “You may call me, Mr. President.”

The philadelphia convention
The Philadelphia Convention

Qualifications for Office

  • The Constitution requires that the president must be:

    • Age, residency, anything else?

      • Let’s chat about this!

        Terms of Office

  • Big to do, lots of different ideas thrown out

  • 22nd amendment

Pay and benefits
Pay and Benefits

  • President

    • $450,000 (includes benefits)/year

  • Any other benefits?

  • Retirement plans?

    • $143,800/year

  • What about the widows?

    • $20,000/year

Removal of a president
Removal of a President

  • Ultimate check on power!

  • What does the House do?

    • Investigates, drafts “Articles of Impeachment,” and charges

  • What does the Senate do?

    • Tries the case & if 2/3 say guilty – peace out!

  • Who is the judge?

  • How many Presidents have been impeached?

  • How many Presidents have been removed?


  • How many times has this happened?

    • Through 2001, 7 presidents have died in office (plus Nixon on resignation).

  • Who takes over and where does it say this?

  • Presidential Succession Act of 1947 that stated the order of succession after the VP:

    • Speaker of the House

    • President Pro Tempore of the Senate

    • Secretary of State, Treasury, Defense, and other Cabinet heads in order of the creation of their department

  • 25th amendment

What merits incapacitation
What merits…incapacitation?

  • They never really described how a President becomes disabled.

    • They have all had strokes, heart attacks, bullets.

  • VP will become Acting President if…

    • The President tells Congress in writing that he can’t do his job.

    • The VP and majority of members in cabinet inform Congress, in writing, that the President is incapacitated.

Example of incapacitation
Example of Incapacitation

  • July 13, 1985

    • Surgeons got a malignant tumor from Reagan’s large intestine.

    • Before the surgery Reagan transferred the powers of President to VP George H.W. Bush.

    • When he awoke, 7 hours and 54 minutes later, he reclaimed all Presidential powers he had previously relinquished.

The vice president
The Vice President

  • “I am the Vice President. In this I am nothing, but I may be everything.” - John Adams

  • “The Vice Presidency isn’t worth a warm pitcher of spit.” - John Garner (two term VP to FDR)

  • Two jobs:

    • Take over if needed

    • Preside over Senate and break ties

  • Little power, low profile

  • Why chose this person?

    • Unity (convention), social/cultural balance, overcome candidate’s shortcomings.

  • Can they get fired?

Presidential selection electoral college
Presidential Selection:Electoral College

  • Why is it here?

    • No direct popular vote for Pres

    • Were independent agents in the selection of the President.

      • Was state by state, with each elector casting votes for 2 candidates.

      • If there’s a tie…. The House chooses!

  • However political parties messed things up. Shoulda listened to G.Dub.

Then political parties came
Then Political Parties Came

  • The Election of 1800

    • When did parties come about???

    • Parties chose candidate and electors

      • Hmm…. How is this going to work out, tie duh!

    • Who chooses???

  • 12th amendment

Electoral college today
Electoral College Today

  • Nominated at convention or chosen in state central committee and chosen by popular vote

  • Winner take all (except Nebraska and Maine)

  • Meet Monday after second Wednesday in Dec.

  • Jan 6 – Congress counts votes – need 270!

  • Jan 20 – Pres is sworn in!

But there are problems
But there are problems…

  • Distributed not in exact proportion to population

  • Can win pop vote but not electoral vote

    • Has happened 4 times

      • *J.Q. Adams vs. A. Jackson, *R. Hayes v. S. Tilden, *B. Harrison vs. G. Cleveland, and *G. Bush vs. A. Gore

  • Don’t have to vote with pop vote (in some states)

    • Has happened 11 times


  • Elections may be thrown into the House, where voting is State by State

Ways to fix these problems
Ways to fix these problems!!!

  • The District Plan

    • Electors are elected in each congressional district, rather than the current winner-take-all plan.

  • The Proportional Plan

    • Give each candidate the share of the electoral vote that they earned in the popular vote.

  • Direct Popular Election

    • No more electoral college, people elect President.

Nominating the president today national convention
Nominating the President Today: National Convention

  • National Conventions since 1832 – thanks Anti-Masons!

    • Delegates from all states go

  • There is no legal control over conventions.

  • These are grand events that are held to…

    • Adopt platform, unify party, pick candidates

  • The nomination is the high point

    • These usually go to white, Protestant, males who have been governors or senators

Presidential primaries
Presidential Primaries

  • Most common method

  • Delegate-selection processes and/or elections in which voters can express their preference for Presidential candidates.

  • Public, “Do you like me or not?”

  • Parties out of power = hard-fought primary.

  • So we know the process to get there, what about when they are there?








Chief Diplomat

Chief Executive

Presidential Powers

Veto Power





Presidential roles

Head of State

Commander in Chief

Chief Executive

Chief Diplomat

Party Leader

Voice of the People/Chief Citizen

Chief Administrator

Chief Legislator

Presidential Roles

Chief legislator
Chief Legislator

  • FDR claimed the leadership and agenda setting power for the president and got it

  • Shifted Pres powers from executing policy to making it

    • Hard during divided gov’t

The constitutional powers of the president
The Constitutional Powers of the President

  • Article II

  • Expressed powers

  • Executive Power Clause – Article II, first line

    • It states "the executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America."

      • Implied powers

What exactly are the

What exactly are the

Presidential Powers?

The president s executive powers diplomatic powers

Executing the Law

The President must carry out all laws.

The Ordinance Power

The Appointing Power

The Removal Power

The Power to Make Treaties

Executive Agreements

The Power of Recognition

Can’t declare war

Military with no war??

Peace, Vietnam & Korea

The President’sExecutive Powers Diplomatic Powers

The president s legislative powers judicial powers

Gives the State of the Union

Suggests annual budgets

Recommends special legislation to Congress

Can veto legislation

Can call special sessions of Congress

Can adjourn Congress if the two houses cannot agree on a date for adjournment

Grant reprieves and pardons in cases involving federal law.

Reduce sentences, or fines, imposed by a court.

Grant amnesty, or a general pardon, to persons who have violated the law.

The President’s Legislative Powers Judicial Powers

The modern presidency
The Modern Presidency

  • In the 20th century, the presidency has become ever more powerful.

  • The modern Presidency begins with FDR who was elected to four terms during two huge national crises:

    • The Great Depression

    • WWII.

  • FDR also personalized the presidency with his use of radio 'fireside chats' directly with Americans.

  • The modern president

    • leads a large government

    • plays an active and leading role in foreign and domestic policy

    • plays a strong legislative role

    • and uses technology to get 'close to Americans.'

Checks on presidential powers
Checks on Presidential Powers

  • Congress

  • Bureaucracy

  • Supreme Court

  • Media

  • Public Opinion

    • Check out the following approval ratings.

The presidential establishment
The Presidential Establishment

  • Today, the president has numerous advisors to help make policy and fulfill the duties of chief executive.

    • The Cabinet

    • The Executive Office of the President (EOP)

    • White House Staff

The cabinet
The Cabinet

  • The Cabinet is not mentioned in the Constitution and is formulated by each president as he/she sees fit.

  • The Cabinet consists of the heads of the major bureaucratic departments (State, Defense, Treasury, etc.).

  • The President appoints these members who must be confirmed by Senate.

    • Most have been white males.

  • Cabinet members are heads of executive departments, and combined they serve as advisors to the President.

  • Congress exercises some control over the bureaucracy -- through advice and consent and budget controls.

The executive office of the president eop
The Executive Office of the President (EOP)

  • The EOP was established by FDR and is a very important inner circle of advisors to the president.

  • The EOP is staffed by persons responsible to the president alone.

  • The EOP includes such important offices as the Chief of Staff, Press Secretary, National Security Council, the Council of Economic Advisors, and the Office of Management and Budget.

White house staff
White House Staff

  • The people most directly responsible to the President.

    • Personal assistants, senior aides, administrative personnel and more.

  • No Senate confirmation.

  • Their power comes solely from their personal relationship with the president.

  • Height of 583 members in 1972.

    • Now it is smaller running around 400 people.

Continuity and change
Continuity and Change

  • Too big or too small?

    • Some argue that the Presidency is too large of a job for one person. Too much power and responsibility…and too small of a paycheck.

    • Some say, look at all the power other government officials have, and they do just fine. The President is paid plenty, thank you very much!

  • It is quite a job, among other roles they are:

    • A symbol of the country

    • Ceremonial leader

    • The nation’s chief executive