POETRY Form and Function. ACADEMIC VOCABULARY. Structure. Poetic form : the way words are organized and patterned, including length and placement Arrangement of lines and stanzas Units of sound used Form is chosen to fit subject matter Line = single row of words on a page in a poem
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Poetic form: the way words are organized and patterned, including length and placement
Line = single row of words on a page in a poem
Stanza = a group of lines that form a unit of thought in a poem
Conventional/Traditional or Fixed form: poetry with set rules, such as number of lines, rhythm, and rhyme (sonnets)
Organic or Irregular form: poetry that takes shape freely because of the flow of content (free verse)
Apostrophe: directly addressing an absent person, a nonhuman creature or object, or an abstract idea.
Hyperbole: exaggeration to convey strong emotions.
Extended Metaphor: long, elaborate comparison of two unlike things
Irony: contrasts of situations in which what is expected is not what actually occurs.
Paradox: seemingly impossible contradictions that turn out to be true.
Inverted Sentences: To maintain meter and rhyme scheme, poems sometimes use unusual word order. Punctuation may show slurred, omitted, or accented syllables.
Epic storyline examples:
Ballad: has meter, rhyme and repeated passages
Ode: a lyric poem (short, a single speaker expresses personal thoughts and feelings) of a serious or meditative nature that aims to elevate its subject
Odes tend to be longer poems but may take a variety of forms.
Rhythm: the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
Meter: the repetition of regular rhythmic units
Foot: each unit of meter; consists of a combination of stressed and unstressed syllables
Scansionor scanning: the notation of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry - breaking down a lines into rhythmic components to determine meter
• Iamb, or iambic foot: an unstressed followed by a stressed syllable . Iambs are the most common meter.
EXAMPLE: My life closed twice before its close—
• Trochee, or trochaic foot: a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. Used to provide a singsong or trance-like rhythm.
EXAMPLE: Tiger!/Tiger!/ burning/ bright
• Anapest: two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable. Often convey galloping or other forward motion.
EXAMPLE “Till at length into Aix Roland galloped and stood.”
• Dactyl: a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables. Also move the rhythm along quickly, and often a poet will end a line with a half-foot to provide a stop.
EXAMPLE Hickory Dickory Dock
Rhyme scheme: a pattern of end rhyme in a poem
Exact rhyme: word pair or set whose accented vowel sounds—and succeeding sounds—are identical, as in amuse, confuse, and lose
Slant rhyme / off rhyme: rhyme that is approximate but not exact, as in road/ride and sell/seal
End rhyme: rhyme that occurs at the end of a line of poetry
Internal rhyme: rhyme that occurs within a single line of poetry
End-stopped line: a line whose end coincides with a pause in normal speech
Enjambment: a line whose end does not coincide with a natural pause. A pause or breaking in the middle of a line or a run on that gives end stop
Couplet: 2- rhyming line stanza, usually a response to an earlier developed issue
quatrain: 4-line stanza
sestet: 6-line stanza
tercet: 3-line stanza
octave: 8-line stanza
Famous for free verse
Creates rhythm with poetic devices:
Cataloging – listing (people, things, attributes)
Parallelism – related ideas phrased in similar ways
Recognize the poetic forms of Whitman:
Going to school, I dress quickly, eat in a rush, run for the bus.
Going to school, I read closely, listen, speak, write, rush to the next class.
Repetition – “Going to school”
Cataloging – lists of actions
Parallel grammatical structure – I + Verb + Adv
Write a few lines of your own using free verse and at least two of Whitman’s devices.
Have you exhibited a specific tone (an expression of attitude toward the subject) through your choice of words and details?
My life closed twice before its close –
It yet remains to see
If Immortality unveil
A third event to me
So huge, so hopeless to conceive
As these that twice befell.
Parting is all we know of heaven,
And all we need of hell.